Arrow of Time in Various Physical Theories  

Thermodynamic Arrow of Time > s.a. entropy [production]; generalized thermodynamics.
@ General references: Schulman & Shtokhamer IJTP(77); Hutchison BJPS(93); Savitt BJPS(94); Zak IJTP(96); Busch CMC(00)mp/99; Zeh FPL(99)phy; Brown & Uffink SHPMP(01) [source]; Callender in(01); Muratov JPA(01) [classical statistical mechanics]; Castagnino & Laciana CQG(02); Yukalov PLA(03) [quasi-isolated systems]; Winsberg PhSc(04)dec [Albert's proposal vs Reichenbach]; Hagar PhSc(05)jul; Maroney SHPMP(05), Gallavotti Chaos(06) [irreversibility time scale]; Ladyman et al SHPMP(07) [logical vs thermodynamical arrow of time]; Lucia PRS(08) [and ergodicity]; Swendsen AJP(08)jul [model, qualitative understanding]; Drory SHPMP(08) [no paradox]; Polonyi a1206-in [environment-induced]; Muriel PLA(13) [evolution of the single-particle distribution function]; Drossel a1509 [irreversibility is fundamental]; Korzekwa PRA(17)-a1609 [formal structure, classical and quantum theories].
@ Examples, related topics: Hutchison BJPS(95) [friction implies irreversibility in practice], comment Callender BJPS(95); Spohn LNP(01) [hard spheres and Boltzmann equation]; Tian JHEP(05)gq [thermal time, in de Sitter space]; Partovi PRE(08)-a0708 [violation in high-correlation environment]; Schulman JPCS(09)-a0811 [role of cosmology]; Trushechkin a1102 [and "functional mechanics"]; Jenkins AJP(14)-a1301 [in an ideal fluid].

In Quantum Theory > s.a. time in quantum theory; modified quantum theories [time symmetric].
* Idea: The standard formalism rules out the existence of an arrow of time because it is based on conserved probabilities; The Brussels school proposed formalism based on the presence of resonances and the use of rigged Hilbert space and time-evolution semigroups; Or one can try quantum field theory.
* And observation: An experiment on entropy production in a microscopic nuclear-spin system indicates role of quantum correlations.
@ General references: Fargue & Fer AFLB(76); Toyozawa JPSJ(89); Lenz & Życzkowski JPA(92); Page PRL(93)gq; Bohm & Kielanowski APPB(96)qp/95 [different types]; Kadomtsev SPU(95); Fain 00; D'Ariano et al PLA(00)qp [and phase squeezing]; Bishop IJTP-qp/02-conf; volume LNP(03)#622; de la Madrid LNP(03)qp [and boundary conditions]; Bohm IJTP(03) [resonances and decay]; Bishop IJTP(05)qp-conf [and mental systems]; Castagnino et al FP(06); Pérez-Madrid PhyA(07); Holster NJP(03); Strauss et al a0802, comment Hall a0802 [arrow-of-time operator]; Bohm et al JPA(08)-a0803-conf; Maccone PRL(09)-a0802, comments Jennings & Rudolph PRL(10)-a0909, Nikolić a0912, reply a0912 [resolution based on information]; David PRL(11)-a1103 [role of reversibility in the quantum formalism]; Kawamoto JSM(11)-a1106 [analysis of microscopic reversibility]; Chiarelli JPCS(14)-a1307 [relation between micro and macro arrows of time]; Brunelli & Paternostro a1610 [and correlations].
@ Models: Polonyi PRD(08)-a0801 [semiclassical Coulomb field and decoherence]; Oerter AJP(11)mar [simple model, and entropy]; Wójcik a1201 [simple model]; Fernández de Córdoba et al a1304 [gravitationally-induced irreversibility]; de la Torre a1411 [position-momentum correlation]; Arias-González a1511 [from microscopic reversibility and non-Markovianity]; > s.a. approaches to quantum theory [sub-quantum].
@ Quantum measurement: Aharonov et al PR(64); Zeh FP(79)qp/03; Baaquie IJMPA(94) [decoherence and Friedrichs model]; Schulman 97; Bohm et al IJTP(99); Srivastava et al IJMPB(99)qp/98 [information and entropy]; Halabi NCB(10)-a0908; Dressel et al a1610 [reversibility and continuous measurement].
@ Rigged Hilbert space: Schulte et al qp/95; Bishop IJTP(04), IJTP(05) [Bohm vs Brussels-Austin], qp/05; Bohm et al Sigma(11)-a1109 [rigged Hilbert spaces of Hardy functions]; Marcucci & Conti a1607; > s.a. hilbert space.
@ Brussels school: Prigogine & Petrosky PhyA(87); Hasegawa et al FP(91); Antoniou & Prigogine PhyA(93); Bohm IJTP(97)ht [K decay]; Ordóñez PhyA(98)mp/00; Bostroem qp/00; Castagnino & Gunzig IJTP(99)qp/00 [axiomatic], qp/00 [comparison]; Bishop SHPMP(04) [overview]; Bohm et al qp/07 [framework].
@ Brussels school, critiques: Batterman PhSc(91)jun; Verstraeten PhSc(91)dec; Karakostas PhSc(96)sep.
@ And observation: Bohm et al qp/07 [with single ion]; Batalhão et al PRL(15)-a1502 + Auffèves Phy(15)nov + news pw(15)nov + PhysOrg(15)dec [correlations in a nuclear spin system]; > s.a. quantum effects [reversal of evolution].
> Related topics: see hilbert space; measurement in quantum mechanics; locality; quantum statistical mechanics; quantum systems; resonance [Gamow states].

In Cosmology
@ In cosmology: Page IJTP(84) [inflation]; Hawking PRD(85); Hu in(94)gq/93 [fluctuation-dissipation relation]; Kiefer & Zeh PRD(95)gq/94 [reversal in recollapse]; Rothman & Anninos PRD(97) [clumping and phase space volume]; Dastidar MPLA(99)qp-conf [and cmb]; Allahverdyan & Gurzadyan JPA(02) [relation with thermodynamics, and cmb]; Albrecht ap/02-fs [inflation]; Castagnino et al CQG(03)qp/02, FP(03) [and other arrows]; Carroll & Chen ht/04 [spontaneous inflation]; Wald SHPMP(06)gq/05-conf, Earman SHPMP(06) [and initial conditions]; Carroll SA(08)may; Mersini-Houghton & Vaas ed-12; Hartle in(14)-a1301 [quantum, thermodynamical and possible local arrows]; Gurzadyan et al a1302-conf; Ellis a1302 [and the emergent block universe]; Rovelli a1505 [from the coupling between us and the rest of the universe]; Sahni et al CQG(15)-a1506 [in dissipationless cosmology]; Pérez et al a1507/JCAP [and cosmological black holes]; Barbour et al a1507 + comment Zeh a1601 [entaxy and entropy]; Allahverdyan & Gurzadyan PRE(16)-a1506 [and dark energy].
@ And the origin of the universe: Vilenkin PRD(13)-a1305; > Online resources: see Sean Carroll's 2010 talk [and the Big Bang].
@ In quantum cosmology: Hawking et al PRD(93)gq [from boundary conditions]; Gell-Mann & Hartle gq/93-in; Kiefer BJP(05)gq-proc, a0910-ch [the origin is in quantum cosmology]; Bojowald a0910-ch [lqc]; Hartle & Hertog PRD(12)-a1106 [in the no-boundary quantum state].
@ In the multiverse: Ćirković FP(03) [Boltzmann-Schütz argument]; Mersini-Houghton a0909-conf; Robles-Pérez a1203 [and entanglement]; Aharonov et al a1608 [quilted multiverse].

In Other Theories > s.a. causality and causality violations; time in quantum gravity.
@ Radiation: Frisch BJPS(00) [dissolution of puzzle]; Price SHPMP(06); Frisch SHPMP(06); Boozer EJP(07) [and retarded potentials].
@ In quantum field theory: Vitiello ht/01-conf; Buchholz CMP(03); Atkinson SHPMP(06) [QED]; Morgan a0810-FQXi.
@ And string theory: McInnes NPB(07); Bousso PRD(12)-a1112 [and the landscape, arrow of time as constraint on the vacuum structure].


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