Black-Hole Types  

In General > s.a. binaries; black-hole geometry [black strings]; supermassive black holes.
* Dirty black holes: Black holes surrounded by matter, e.g., an accretion disk.
@ Reviews: Celotti et al CQG(99)ap; Ziółkowski ap/03-proc.
@ Related topics: Stornaiolo GRG(02) [cosmological, lensing and effect on cmb]; > s.a. black-hole analogs [and mimickers].
> Black-hole solutions: see 2D, 3D, and 4D black-hole solutions; black-hole uniqueness and hair; quantum black holes.

Microscopic / Small > s.a. black-hole formation [high-energy physics, cosmic rays]; particle models; primordial black holes.
@ References: Wu GRG(98) [from "nothing", constrained gravitational instanton]; Karasik et al PRD(04)gq/03, PRD(04) [in Randall-Sundrum]; Cavaglià & Das CQG(04)ht [TeV-scale, properties]; Harada PRD(06)gq [minimum mass]; Spallucci & Smailagic a1605-in [Planck-scale, particle-like description].
@ Phenomenology: Alvarez-Muñiz et al PRD(02) [with neutrino telescopes]; Khriplovich et al PRD(08)-a0710, a0801 [small one passing through Earth]; Sobrinho & Augusto MNRAS(14)-a1406 [detection via electromagnetic radiation]; Nafooshe a1312-proc [production and evaporation]; Wondrak et al a1612-conf [and accelerator experiments]; Nakama & Yokoyama a1811 [cosmological implications of early-universe remnants].
> Phenomenology: see black-hole phenomenology; dark matter types; phenomenology of geometry and quantum uncertainties [gup]; spacetime foam.

Stellar Black Holes
* Status: The main type of candidate is X-ray binaries; 2001, First evidence for rotating black holes; To search for them, look for effects that can be attributed to an unseen star with M > 2 MSun on motion; 2008, The closest ones appear to be the microquasars GRO J1655-40 and A0620-00.
* Candidates: Cygnus X-1, the oldest candidate, first discovered during a rocket flight in 1965 [@ Cui et al ap/97-proc], with M = 14.8 ± 1.0 MSun; LMC X-1 (similar characteristics to Cygnus X-1); LMC X-3 (more recent but more convincing candidate, with mass is probably around 10 MSun); SS 433 (complicated object, the case is not clear cut); 2012, There are about two dozen candidates, the largest one being IC 10 X-1, with M around 23 MSun.
@ General references: Islam et al MNRAS(04)ap/03, MNRAS(04)ap/03, MNRAS(04)ap/03 [from first massive stars]; Belczynski et al ApJ(10)-a0904 [maximum mass]; Farr et al ApJ(11)-a1011 [mass distribution]; Banerjee & Mukhopadhyay PRL(13)-a1307 [relation between mass and spin]; Miller & Miller PRP(15)-a1408 [masses and spins]; Spera et al a1606-proc [mass spectrum].
@ Binaries: Charles ap/98-ch [in the Milky Way]; McClintock & Remillard ap/03-ch; Bulik & Belczynski a0907/MSAI [formation and coalescence rate].
@ Cygnus X-1: Reid et al ApJ(11)-a1106, Orosz et al ApJ(11)-a1106, Gou et al ApJ(11)-a1106 [parameters]; news pw(11)jun [direct measurement of the distance].
@ Other specific black holes and galaxies: Orosz et al Nat(07)oct-a0710 [in M33, 15.65 MSun]; Foellmi NA(09)-a0812 [closest]; Paredes a0907-ln [in our galaxy]; Morscher et al ApJ(15)-a1409 [in globular clusters]; news cosmos(18)apr [near the galactic center].

Intermediate-Size Black Holes > s.a. primordial black holes.
* Idea: Black holes with masses in the range 30–300,000 MSun.
* Status: 2002, They also seem to be common; 2004, They may form from runaway mergers of stars or stellar black holes in a cluster; 2012, Another possible formation scenario is the collapse of a very massive star without (much) mass loss, which could happen in a very low metallicity environment, such as for population III stars; Some candidates in other galaxies are one near the core of M82 and one in the spiral arms of M74, candidates at the centers of globular clusters are one in M15, one in G1 (the best candidate, 14,000–23,000 MSun), and one in Ω Centauri (probably an ex-small galaxy), but in all of these the observations have other possible interpretations; 2015, The detection of intermediate-mass black holes in globular clusters is still being debated, with different observational methods leading to different conclusions for the same objects.
@ Reviews: Miller & Colbert IJMPD(04)ap/03; van der Marel ap/03-ch; McMillan et al ap/04-in [in massive clusters]; Miller ASS(05)ap/04-in; Mezcua IJMPD-a1705.
@ General references: Sivaram & Arun a0709 [formation and properties]; Frampton a0904, a0905 [as dark matter], NPPS(10)-a0907, AIP(10)-a0907 [and cosmic entropy]; Frampton & Ludwick APP(11)-a0910; Brigmann et al PRL(09) [and search for nearby dark matter]; Dokuchaev et al AL(10)-a1010 [suppression mechanism]; Buliga et al a1108 [black-hole spin]; Lou & Wu MNRAS(12)-a1201; Lützgendorf et al a1301-proc; Rashkov & Madau ApJ(13)-a1303 [in the galactic halo, simulations]; Mastrobuono-Battisti et al ApJ(14)-a1403 [in nuclear star clusters]; Bianchini et al IAU-a1501 [discrepancies and data interpretation].
@ In globular clusters: Gebhardt et al ApJ(05)ap [in G1]; Trenti ap/06/MNRAS [old globular clusters]; Maccarone et al Nat(07)ap; Zaharijas PRD(08)-a0712 [in G1, and dark matter]; Pasquato et al ApJ(09)-a0904; Miocchi A&A(10)-a1002 [in Ω Centauri]; Vesperini et al ApJL(10)-a1004; Umbreit & Rasio a1207/ApJ [M10 and other globular clusters]; Leigh et al MNRAS(14)-a1407 [and stellar-mass black holes]; Zocchi et al a1501-proc [kinematical signatures]; Lützgendorf et al a1501-IAU [observations and simulations]; Pasquato a1606-proc [with machine learning]; de Vita et al MNRAS(17)-a1702 [prospects]; Arca-Sedda et al a2007; Tatekawa & Okamura a2012 [with gravitational lensing, estimates].
@ Evidence: Volonteri & Perna MNRAS(05)ap [and evolution]; news wired(09)jul [best evidence yet]; Strohmayer & Mushotzky ApJ(09)-a0911 [in NGC 5408 X-1]; Farrell et al Nat(09)-a1001 [in galaxy ESO 243-49]; Wrobel et al AJ(11)-a1107 [in M54]; Greene SA(12)jan; Strader et al ApJL(12)-a1203 [no evidence in M15, M19 and M22]; Feldmeier et al A&A(13)-a1304 [in NGC 5286]; Sun et al ApJ(13)-a1308 [observations consistent with existence]; Wang & Loeb MNRAS(14)-a1402 [detecting freely floating black holes from radio synchrotron emission]; Mazzolo et al PRD(14)-a1404 [searches with advanced gravitational-wave detectors]; Moran et al AJ(14)-a1408 [in nearby dwarf galaxies]; Earnshaw AN-a1510-proc [in M51?]; Kızıltan et al Nat(17)feb-a1702 [in 47 Tucanae]; Perera et al MNRAS(17)-a1705 [in NGC 6624].

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