Star Formation and Evolution  

In General > s.a. astrophysics; dark-matter phenomenology; star properties [age].
* Energy source: The sequence of nuclear reactions in stars was proposed by Bethe (1938).
* Observational puzzles: The neutrino problem and solar pulsations.
@ General references: Eddington 26; Smart 38 [classic]; Chandrasekhar 42, RMP(84); Saslaw 85; Dejonghe PRP(86); Gurzadyan in(94)-a1407 [10 key theoretical problems]; Binney & Merrifield 98; Ray SA(00)aug [early life]; Gurzadyan ap/03-IAU [dynamics and stability]; Cassisi a0909-IAU [stellar models, rev]; Benacquista 13 [II]; Srinivasan 14 [II]; Beccari & Carraro ch(14)-a1406 [rev].
@ Fate of stars: Frohlich Phys(19)dec [intermediate-mass stars].
@ Related topics: Giannotti a1611-proc [hints of new physics, axion-like particles].
@ Non-technical: Greene AS(01) [protostars]; Heavens AS(05) [and galaxy history]; Narlikar 12; Lequeux 13.

Star Formation in General and in the Local Universe > s.a. milky-way galaxy; solar system [planetary system, solar neighborhood]; star clusters.
* Idea: The main model of star formation originated with the Jeans (1902) theory of the evolution of density perturbations in a medium; Below a certain level, they propagate as sound waves; Above it they give rise to structure by gravitational instability [& Hoyle 53; Peebles & Dicke 68; Zel'dovich et al 67]; The exact evolution depends on what mechanisms are available for energy loss; Not much is known in detail.
@ Books and reviews: Smith 04; Chrysostomou & Lucas CP(05); Ward-Thompson & Whitworth 11 + Bodenheimer 11 [r PT(12)jan]; Krumholz a1511 [book]; Tan a1512-proc [short rev]; Krumholz 17.
@ General references: McKee & Ostriker ARAA(07)-a0707; Salmeron a0903-proc, ApSS(11)-a1106 [role of magnetic fields]; Larson IAU-a1006 [computational]; Kritsuk et al IAU(11)-a1011 [role of interstellar turbulence]; Price IAU(10)-a1012 [Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, state of the art]; Glover & Clark MNRAS(12)-a1105 [(non-)importance of molecular gas]; Bate MNRAS(11)-a1108 [pre-stellar disks]; Elmegreen IAU(11)-a1201 [triggers]; Papadopoulos & Thi proc(13)-a1207 [initial conditions and cosmic rays as regulators]; Krumholz ApJ(12)-a1208 [at extremely low metallicities it occurs in a cold atomic phase of the ISM]; Guszejnov & Hopkins MNRAS(16)-a1507 [and turbulence]; Lada IAU(15)-a1508; Tabatabaei a1604-proc [and feedback in galaxies]; Federrath PT(18)jun [and turbulence].
@ Special types of stars: Kennicutt & Evans ARAA(12)-a1203 [in the Milky Way and nearby galaxies]; Stamatellos proc(14)-a1302 [low-mass stars and brown dwarfs]; Krumholz in(15)-a1403, Woosley & Heger in(15)-a1406 [very massive stars].

Cosmic Star Formation History
* Primordial stars: Population III stars may have formed right after recombination (≈ 5 × 105 yr) at masses of ≈ 10−2–10−3 MSun (brown dwarves); This may account for a significant fraction of dark matter and the high mass end, upon explosion, for the heavy elements found in population II stars; 2018, The first stars seem to have appeared 180 million years after the Big Bang.
* Puzzle: There was a dramatic drop of the star formation activity after z ~ 1.
@ General references: Madau & Dickinson ARAA(14)-a1403 [rev]; Popesso et al A&A(15)-a1407 [role of massive halos].
@ Primordial stars: & Rees 76; Silk 77; Ozernoy & Mukhanov AIP(96); Panagia ASP-ap/02 [first generations]; Dolgov & Blinnikov PRD(14) [in the very early universe, before nucleosynthesis]; news sn(18)feb.

Compact Objects > s.a. black-hole phenomenology and solutions; computational physics; gravitating matter; matter; neutron stars and pulsars.
* Accretion disks: They became important since the discovery of compact binary X-ray sources.
* Eddington Limit: The maximum accretion rate, beyond which the pressure from radiation emitted by the infalling matter would stop further accretion.
@ Accretion disks: Frank et al 85; Treves et al ed-89; Blaes SA(04)oct; Ji & Balbus PT(13)aug [role of turbulence]; > s.a. matter near black holes.
@ Instabilities: Chandrasekhar & Friedman PRL(71) [rotating star]; Bechhoefer & Chabrier AJP(93)may [in higher dimensions]; Villain EAS(06)ap.
@ Jets: Blandford, Begelman & Rees SA(82)may; Königl IJMPD(10)-a1001-proc [outstanding questions]; Foschini a1003; Ghisellini a1112-conf; Foschini a1205-GRF [Blandford-Znajek theory and black hole/jet/disk feedback]; Morabito & Meyer a1211 [and accretion disks, rev]; news at(12)dec [mass independence of jet producing mechanism]; Foschini IJMPCS(14)-a1310 [unification]; Kumar & Zhang PRP(15)-a1410 [rev]; > s.a. gravitomagnetism; matter around black holes.
@ Related topics: Shapiro & Teukolsky 83; Ziólkowski NCB(05)ap-conf [in the Milky Way]; Lavagetto et al MNRAS(05)ap [X-ray binaries and general relativity]; Mishra & Iyer PRD(10)-a1008 [head-on infall]; Postnov & Yungelson LRR(14) [evolution of compact binaries]; > s.a. Roche Lobe.

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