Tests of General Relativity with Spinning Bodies  

Lense-Thirring Effect > s.a. brans-dicke theory; gravitomagnetism; mach's principle.
* Idea: A gravitomagnetic effect, consisting in the precession of the orbital plane (orbital angular momentum) of a particle orbiting around a rotating mass (spin-orbital angular momentum coupling); It does not depend on the inclination of the orbit.
* History: Geodetic precession of the Moon orbit predicted by de Sitter in 1916, 2"/cy; Lense 1917; Thirring 1918.
* Experiment: For the Moon, measured 2 ± 0.04"/cy; more experiments planned; 1998, Evidence for Earth satellites and motion around neutron star / black hole; 2002, NASA-Stanford Gravity Probe B (scheduled for launch this Fall, should measure precessions of 42 mas/yr) and LAGEOS projects nearing completion; 2004, Gravity Probe B launched; 2004–2005, Gravity Probe B data taking, with analysis scheduled to be completed in 2007; 2007, Effect measured with a precision of 1%, 0.01% expected once certain torques on apparatus are understood.
@ General references: Thirring & Lense PZ(18); Braginsky et al PRL(84); Landau & Lifshitz v2, pr104; Adler & Silbergleit IJTP(00)gq/99; Armitage & Natarajan ApJ(99)ap [accretion disks]; Iorio NCB(01)gq/99 [derivation]; Ciufolini GRG(04); Ahluwalia-Khalilova GRG(04) [C-conjugation]; Embacher IJMPD(05) [rev]; Iorio IJMPD(08)gq/06 [proposal]; Ruffini & Sigismondi ed-03; Cattani a1101 [pedagogical]; Haranas et al a1307 [and motion of celestial bodies]; Silenko PPNL(13)-a1408 [quantum-mechanical description]; Overduin CQG(15)-a1504 [rev].
@ With Earth orbits: Ciufolini FP(86) [proposal]; Iorio CQG(02)gq [polar orbits]; Moreno et al a1311, Iorio IJMPD(14)-a1311 [Galileo satellites].
@ Solar system experiments: Ciufolini PRL(86); Bertotti et al PRL(87) [lunar perigee]; Ciufolini et al gq/97/Nat; Iorio RNC(02)gq/01, PLA(03)gq/02, in(05)gq/03, gq/04-in; Iorio & Doornbos GRG(05)gq/04 [Jason-1]; Iorio NA(05)gq, GRG(06)gq/05 [impact of Earth gravity measurements]; Iorio & Lainey IJMPD(05)gq [Galilean satellites of Jupiter]; Iorio IJMPD(07)gq/06 [Cassini and Saturn satellites]; Iorio CQG(06)gq [MGS and Mars, evidence]; Iorio in(07)gq, comment Krogh CQG(07)ap + Iorio CEJP(09)gq/07, and Sindoni et al gq/07 + Iorio gq/07 [with MGS]; Murphy et al PRL(07) [and lunar orbit]; Iorio GRG(08)-a0803 [Mars mission], PoS-a0905 [recent attemps]; Iorio et al ASS(10)-a1009 [rev]; Iorio a1109-wd [discrepancies in Mercury MESSENGER flybys].
@ With binary pulsars: O'Connell PRL(04)gq [proposal]; Stairs et al PRL(04) [measurement]; Hehl et al a1605-MG14.
@ LAGEOS: Iorio CQG(01)gq/00 [and the clock effect], gq/04, gq/04, et al CQG(04)gq/02, gq/04; Iorio ASR(08)-a0802, GRG(09)-a0803 [LARES]; Lucchesi & Peron PRL(10) + Rubincam Phy(10).
@ Gravity Probe B: Will PRD(03)gq/02 [theory]; news NASA(04)apr [launch], NASA(04)sep [data taking]; Bencze et al NPPS(07) [rev]; news pn(07)apr, pw(07)apr [preliminary results]; "Forst" a0712 [criticism]; news pw(08)may [panel report]; Vető EJP(10) [pedagogical]; Everitt et al PRL(11)-a1105 + news NASA(11)may, sfn(11)may, stanford(11)may, nyt(11)may, PT(11)jul + Will Phy(11) [results]; Adler CQG(15)-1405 [theoretical basis].

Lense-Thirring-Schiff Effect (frame dragging) > s.a. gravitomagnetism; black-hole phenomenology; mach's principle; CP violation.
* Idea: The precession of the spin axis of an orbiting gyroscope; Analogous to the principle of equivalence, in that all gyroscopes will precess equally; usually interpreted in Machian terms, using the concept of "frame dragging"; The rate of precession dΩ/dt depends on the orbital inclination.
* Observation, experiments: 1990, Precession of the spin of the binary pulsar observed; 1997, Observed in modulation of X-ray signals from neutron stars [@ news pn(97)nov]; 2004, Gravity Probe B space gyroscope mission launched; 2007, "Glimpses" of frame dragging effect seen in data; Indirect evidence provided by LAGEOS; 2008, Double pulsar data confirm predictions [@ news sr(08)jul]; > s.a. Non-Symmetric Gravity.
@ References: Schiff PNAS(60); Mashhoon et al GRG(84); Cui et al ApJL(98)ap/97 [obs, X-ray binaries]; Rindler PLA(97) [interpretation]; Kalogera & Psaltis PRD(00)ap/99 [neutron stars]; Hernández-Pastora et al gq/00 [gyroscopes]; Holstein AJP(01)dec [simple]; Ciufolini eConf-gq/02 [experiments]; Ashby news Nat(04)oct; Robertson gq/05 [compared to Newtonian gravity + special relativity]; O'Connell CQG(05)gq; Epstein FP(08) [Hamiltonian approach]; Mirza IJTP(09)-a0808 [effect of charge]; Randono PRD(10)-a0906 [frame dragging by spinors]; Cattani a1101 [pedagogical]; > s.a. astrophysical and cosmological tests.

Related Topics > see astrophysical and cosmological tests [strong-field tests, galactic center]; tests with orbiting bodies [satellites, perihelion advance].

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