Phenomenology of Black-Hole Radiation  

Effects / Properties of Emitted Radiation > s.a. black holes and information; entropy bounds [hyperentropic].
* Nature of radiation: Quanta of all fields that couple to the geometry and to any charges the black hole may have are radiated; In 4D, for T greater than all particle masses, and using standard model parameters, Page estimated that 1.8% of the energy is radiated in scalar particles, 88% in fermions, 9.8% in vectors, and 0.1% in gravitons; In higher dimensions, the gravitational contribution increases.
* Spectrum: Various authors have proposed that it is not exactly thermal, due to (i) Frequency-dependent greybody factors in the potential barrier, (ii) Dynamical nature of black-hole background and energy conservation, back-reaction, in the tunneling approach, or (iii) Quantum correlations.
@ Rates and spectra: Page PRD(76), PRD(76); Page & Hawking AJ(76); Daghigh & Lapusta PRD(06) [microscopic black holes, p and anti-p]; Boonserm & Visser PRD(08)-a0806 [bounds on greybody factors]; Greenwood & Stojković JHEP(09) [as seen by infalling observers]; Gray et al a1506 [average flux]; > s.a. Greybody Factor.
@ Stimulated emission: Bekenstein & Meisels PRD(77); Panangaden & Wald PRD(77).
@ Entropy, density matrix: Bekenstein PRD(75); Kundt Nat(76)jan; Page JCAP(13)-a1301 [time dependence]; Alberte et al JHEP(15)-a1502 [in different models for radiation]; Alonso-Serrano & Visser a1512 [entropy/information flux].
@ Back-reaction: Balbinot CQG(84); York in(84); Balbinot & Barletta CQG(89); Kraus PhD(95)gq; Zaidi & Gegenberg PRD(98)gq/97; Massar & Parentani gq/98, NPB(00)gq/99; Hu et al in(98)gq/99; Fabbri et al GRG(01)gq/01, NPB(02)ht/01 [and information paradox]; Ring ht/05 [evaporation rate suppression]; Vilkovisky PLB(06); Maia & Schützhold PRD(07) [toy model]; Taves & Kunstatter PRD(14)-a1408 [non-singular (quantum corrected) model]; Chowdhury & Krauss a1409/PRL [and black-hole formation, horizon]; Mersini-Houghton & Pfeiffer a1409 [fireworks instead of firewalls].
@ Related topics: Bianchi & Smerlak GRG(14)-a1405 [last gasp, negative energy burst]; Ellis et al PRD(14)-a1407 [consequences, in a cosmological context]; Düztaş & Semiz GRG(16)-a1508 [evaporation as a cosmic censor]; > s.a. black holes and information [endpoint]; black-hole types; dark-energy models; entanglement; equivalence principle; gravitational instantons.

Different Approaches and Situations > s.a. black holes in higher dimensions and modified theories [2D]; horizons [universal]; kerr-newman solutions.
@ And path-integral quantum gravity: Hartle & Hawking PRD(76); York & Schmekel PRD(05).
@ And loop quantum gravity: Ashtekar & Bojowald CQG(05)gq [dynamical horizons]; Díaz-Polo & Fernández-Borja CQG(08)-a0706 [isolated horizons].
@ Tunneling approach: Berezin et al G&C(99)gq/06; Parikh & Wilczek PRL(00)ht/99; Parikh GRG(04)ht-GRF; Angheben et al JHEP(05) [extremal and rotating]; Medved & Vagenas MPLA(05)gq; Arzano et al JHEP(05)ht; Liu gq/05; Jiang et al PRD(06)ht/05 [rotating]; Ren et al GRG(06) [with topological defects]; Hu et al gq/06 [and laws of black-hole dynamics]; Kerner & Mann PRD(06)gq [Taub-NUT]; Wu & Jiang JHEP(06) [BTZ black holes]; Pilling PLB(08)-a0709 [and first law]; Banerjee & Majhi JHEP(08) [beyond the semiclassical approximation]; Stotyn et al CQG(09)-a0811 [coordinate-free formulation]; Yale PLB(11)-a1012 [scalars, fermions and bosons]; Vanzo et al CQG(11) [rev]; Torres et al PLB(13)-a1308; > s.a. thermodynamics of specific solutions [Reissner-Nordström].
@ Collapsing object: Greenwood et al JCAP(11)-a1011 [collapsing shell]; Saini & Stojković PRL(15)-a1503 [radiation process is unitary]; Kawai & Yokokura PRD(16)-a1509 [matter shell collapsing on an evaporating black hole].
@ Other derivations / models: Gerlach PRD(76) [incipient black hole]; Lapedes PRD(78) [euclidean formalism]; Kraus & Wilczek MPLA(94); Parentani & Piran PRL(94)ht; Scardigli NCB(95)gq/02; Visser IJMPD(03)ht/01 [essential features]; Melnikov & Weinstein ht/01, Weinstein NPPS(02)gq/01, ht/02-conf [Hamiltonian]; Canfora & Vilasi gq/03 [and trace anomaly]; Kiefer CQG(04)gq [and quasi-normal modes]; Yu & Zhang PRD(08)-a0806 [as open quantum system]; Peltola CQG(09)-a0807 [local approach]; Bhattacharya CQG(10)-a0911 [complex path analysis]; Gillani et al JCAP(11) [accelerating and rotating black holes]; Smerlak & Singh PRD(13)-a1304; Pejhan & Rahbardehghan a1408 [Krein quantization approach]; Senovilla & Torres CQG(15)-a1409 [from marginally trapped surfaces]; Israel a1504 [Boulware accretion as alternative scenario]; Robertson & Parentani PRD(15)-a1506 [dissipative field theories].
@ Gravitational anomalies approach: Robinson & Wilczek PRL(05)gq; Das et al IJMPD(08)-a0705; Chen & He CQG(08)-a0705; Banerjee & Kulkarni PRD(08)-a0707; Peng & Wu a0708-wd [counterexample]; Wu et al CQG(08)-a0803; Akhmedova et al PLB(09)-a0808 [comment]; Banerjee IJMPD(09)-a0807 [GRF]; Morita PLB(09) [2D conformal field theory method]; Li et al CQG(10)-a1005 [fermions and 3D black holes]; > s.a. black-hole analogs; equivalence principle [violation].


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