Dark Matter – Direct Detection  

In General, Timeline > s.a. cosmic rays [positron excess]; dark-matter distribution.
* 1996: High-energy-style experiments have been running for years, in particular looking for axions.
* 2000: Evidence for WIMPS reported by the DAMA collaboration at the INFN Gran Sasso Lab, based on seasonal variation of events in a shielded NaI scintillator supposedly detecting 50 mp particles – controversial, and contradicted by the more sophisticated Stanford University CDMS team of B Cabrera.
* 2005: DAMA results still controversial, but still quoted.
* 2008: New DAMA claims of yearly detector-signal modulation, indicating a dark matter "wind"; CoGeNT disputes WIMPS as source.
* 2009: CDMS events signal possible direct detection of dark matter, but need to be confirmed by more statistics.
* 2011: CoGeNT findings support dark-matter detection by the DAMA/LIBRA detector [@ news pw(11)jun].
* 2013: Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) collaboration reports an excess of positrons in the cosmic-ray flux; LUX collaboration reports stringent upper limits on the cross section of WIMP-nucleon elastic scattering.
* 2014: CoGeNT data confirm the annual modulation of events seen by DAMA; Three experiments will get upgrades (SuperCDMS and LUX-ZEPLIN search for WIMPS, ADMX-Gen2 search for axions); DAMA signal may be due to neutrons created by solar neutrinos and atmospheric muons.
* 2016: In the current experiment, DAMA/LIBRA pegs the statistical significance of the detected annual modulation at 9.3 standard deviations.
* 2017: The upgraded XENON1T experiment in Gran Sasso and PandaX-II in Japan report no signals; Feld "in a state of major disruption".
* 2018: COSINE-100, using the same type of detector as DAMA, reports no signs of dark matter.
* 2021: ANAIS Collaboration also reports no sign of WIMPS.
@ Reviews: Cline SA(03)mar; Bertone a0710-talk; Hooper & Baltz ARNPS(08)-a0802; Feng AIP(09)-a0908; Armengaud a1003-ln; Rau PPN(11)-a1103-proc; Porter et al ARAA(11); Baudis PDU(12)-a1211 [the next decade]; Bauer et al PDU(15)-a1305-rp, Arrenberg et al a1310-rp [approaches to detection]; Queiroz a1605-conf.
@ Status: news NYT(08)apr, pw(08)apr, pw(08)aug [disputed claims of WIMP detection at DAMA]; news sn(09)dec, pw(09)dec, NYT(09)dec [rumors of WIMP detection at CDMS]; news NYT(10)may [XENON100]; news SA(14)jul [2nd generation searches]; news guard(16)feb [current efforts]; news pt(16)jul [SABRE experiment built to directly check DAMA results]; Hooper Phy(17)jan [no signal from XENON1-T and PandaX-II data]; COSINE-100 Collaboration Nat(18)dec + news sn(18)dec, pt(18)dec [no signal]; Amare et ANAIS a2103 + news sn(21)mar [no signal].

Experiments on Earth > s.a. fine structure constant variations.
* WIMP detection: Detectors are usually large and underground; They aim to see the results of collisions between WIMPS and atomic nuclei.
* Annual modulation: Were it not for the Sun's gravity, the signal would be expected to peak around June 1, when the Earth is moving against the direction of the dark matter wind; The effect of the Sun should shift the seasonal peak earlier by three months or so.
@ Reviews: Smith & Lewin PRP(90); Sumner LRR(02); Loidl ap/02-proc; Baudis IJMPA(06)ap/05-in; Cooley ap/06-proc; Baudis a0711-proc; Fornengo ASR(08)ap/06-conf; Schnee in(10)-a1101-ln; Marrodán & Rauch JPG(16)-a1509; Spooner JPSJ(17)-a0705; Liu et al nPhys(17)-a1709.
@ Experimental searches: Pretzl ed-NJP(00) [focus issue]; Araújo pw(05)may; Beck JPCS(06)ap/05 [using Josephson junctions]; Saab MPLA(08); Kane & Watson MPLA(08)-a0807 [and the LHC]; Gelmini IJMPA(08); Freese a0812-proc; Lang & Seidel NJP(09)-a0906 [CRESST]; Estrada JPCS(10)-a0911 [using CCDs]; Irastorza a0911-proc [in underground laboratories]; Sandick ASP-a1001; Bertone et al PRD(10)-a1005 [combining LHC and direct detection data]; Censier a1110-proc [non-directional]; Arina et al JCAP(11) [Bayesian view]; Pato JCAP(11); Aguilar et al PRL(13) + Coutu Phy(13) + news NYT(13)apr [positron excess in cosmic rays]; Lee et al PRL(14) + news sa(14)jan [annual modulation]; Aad et ATLAS Collaboration PRL(14) [constraints on masses and interactions]; Askew et al IJMPA(14) [at hadron colliders]; Sorensen PRD(15)-a1412 [modeling and sensitivity of direct-detection experiments]; Bernabei IJMPD(16); news pt(19)mar [future FASER (Forward Search Experiment) at CERN to search for dark photons]; > s.a. Nightmare Scenario.
@ WIMPS at DAMA: Bernabei et al RNC(03)ap; Aalseth et al PRL(08) [modulation]; Davis PRL(14) [DAMA signal and neutrons].
@ Other WIMP detectors: Morales NPPS(00)ap/99; Beg et al APL(02) + pn(02)apr; Luscher ap/03 [Boulby mine]; Morgan CP(03), Seidel ap/03-proc [rev]; Birkedal et al PRD(04)hp [at colliders]; Freese et al PRL(04) [Sagittarius Stream]; Chardin ap/04-in [status]; Mirabolfathi ap/04-conf; news sr(06)nov [CDMS II experiment]; Landsman ap/06-proc [IceCube as dark matter detector]; Schnee AIP(07)ap/06 [rev]; Benetti et al APP(08)ap/07 [liquid Ar in Gran Sasso]; Wai for GLAST AIP(07)ap; Behnke et al Nat(08)-a0804 [limits from bubble chamber experiment]; Sciolla et al a0810-proc [DMTPC]; Ahmed et CDMS PRL(09) + van Bibber Phy(09) [limits on interactions]; Sciolla MPLA(09), Billard et al a1004-proc [directional]; Schnee Phy(10) [XENON100 detector]; news nat(11)apr [bounds on WIMPs and supersymmetry]; Cline MPLA(11); Green MPLA(12)-a1112 [astrophysical uncertainties]; Mayet et al proc(13)-a1207 [directional detection]; LUX Collaboration PRL(14)-a1310, news S&T(13)nov, Sanders a1311 [doubts on WIMP detection claims]; Lang Phy(13) [conficting results]; Bernabei et al EPJC(14)-a1403 [no diurnal modulation seen]; Cline a1406 [rev]; Billard PRL(15) [strategies for identifying WIMPs]; XENON Collaboration PRL(17) + Hoper Phys(17) [no evidence, limits].
@ Other proposals: Goodman et al PRD(10)-a1008 [constraints from colliders]; Livio & Silk Nat(14)mar-a1404 [broadening the search]; Ruppin et al PRD(14) [discriminating dark matter from neutrinos]; Cherry et al PRL(15)-a1501 [detecting annihilation products]; Graham et al PRD(16)-a1512 [using accelerometers]; Levy et al JINST(16)-a1601 [xenon bubble chamber]; Hochberg et al PRL(16) [superconducting detectors]; Schutz & Zurek PRL(16) [with superfluid He]; Arvanitaki et al PRX(18) [resonant absorption in molecules]; Carney et al PRD-a1903 [using only the gravitational coupling]; Calmet a1907 [with quantum sensors]; Sidhu et al a1907 [the human body as a dark matter detector].
@ Supersymmetric-dark-matter search: Vergados AIP(02)ap; Cline ap/03-conf; Ellis et al PRD(05)hp.
@ Search for other particles: news pw(14)oct [hidden photons]; Batell et al PRL(14), Aprile et al PRL(19) [limits on the dark photon from other experiments].
> Online resources: DAMA site; CoGeNT site.

Other Direct Observation > s.a. tests of general relativity [cosmological]; dark-matter distribution [evidence from solar or galactic scales].
* Microlensing: Amount produced by small stars in some galaxies indicates 8–16 times as much mass as from visible stars [@ Langston et al Nat(90)mar]; There may be more stars in halos and gray dwarves in disks than we thought.
@ Detectors in space: Feng NPPS(04); Réfrégier et al SPIE(06)ap [DUNE proposed mission]; Kusenko IJMPD(08)ap/06-proc [sterile neutrinos]; Strigari et al ApJL(07)ap [astrometry with SIM PlanetQuest]; Roberts et al nComm(17) + news cosmos(17)oct [GPS satellites]; Bertoldi et al a1908 [AEDGE, using cold atoms].
@ MACHOS / microlensing: Bennett et al ASP-ap/95; Gould ap/96-conf; De Paolis et al ap/97-MG8, ap/97-MG8; Sutherland RMP(99)ap/98; Jetzer AIP(99)ap/98; Alcock et al ApJL(01)ap/00; Lasserre et al A&A-ap/00.
@ Other lensing: Massey et al RPP(10)-a1001 [in general]; Huterer GRG(10)-a1001 [weak]; Hsueh et al MNRAS(16)-a1601 [bias in observational measurements]; Mishra-Sharma et al PRL(20) [weak lensing].
@ Related topics: Sikivie & Wick PRD(02) [solar wakes]; Bourjaily EPJC(05)ap/04-conf [determining the local density]; Gu et al hp/05 [and dark energy effects]; Clowe et al ApJL(06)ap + sr(06)aug, Clowe & Zaritsky pw(07)feb [galaxy cluster collision]; Clarke & Foot a1512 [plasma].

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