Supernovae  

In General > s.a. gamma-ray astronomy; neutron stars; types of stars [novae].
* Type Ia: From white dwarves in binary systems that accrete matter from their companion and reach the Chandrasekhar mass limit; They all release nearly equal amounts of energy, and are used as standard candles to determine distances to galaxies, precise to within an error of 7%.
* Type II, Ib and Ic: From the core collapse of massive stars; In our galaxy, they usually occur in the spiral arms; 2010, Type II-P supernovae are starting to be used as standard candles.
* Consequences: Within a galaxy, they are important events for the chemical composition of the interstellar medium, they produce galactic fountains, and they can trigger star formation; Outside their galaxy some of them act as standard candles.
* Conditions: Their occurrence is favored in stars with high heavy element content, which are opaque to radiation.

References
@ General: Trimble RMP(82), RMP(83), RMP(88); Woosley & Weaver SA(89)aug; Bethe PT(90)sep; Panagia ap/00-conf; Wheeler AJP(03)jan [RL], ap/04-conf [3D]; Nadyozhin & Imshennik IJMPA(05)ap-conf [rev]; Suresh & Kumar SciRep(05)ap [rev]; Hillebrandt et al SA(06)oct [models]; Nadyozhin a0804-proc; Krisciunas JAVSO-a1205 [usefulness]; Burrows RMP(13)-a1210 [core-collapse, rev]; news at(13)feb [towards predicting supernovae]; Adams et al ApJ(13)-a1306 [statistical predictions for galactic SN]; Richardson et al AJ(14)-a1403 [absolute-magnitude distributions].
@ Types: Turatto et al AIP(07)-a0706 [classes and subclasses]; news pw(11)jun [new, brighter type of supernova]; news ab(13)mar [two kinds of type Ia supernova, with high-velocity (> 12,000 km/s) or normal-velocity ejecta]; Foley et al ApJ(13)-a1212 + news sci(13)mar, pw(13)apr [new type Iax]; Balberg et al MNRAS-a1304 [new rare type, hypervelocity stellar collisions at galactic centers]; Utrobin et al A&A(13)-a1306 [type IIP]; Coelho et al EJP(15)-a1411 [type Ia, standardization].
@ And cosmology: Yungelson & Livio ApJ(00)ap/99 [cosmological constant and acceleration]; Filippenko ap/04-in; Miquel JPA(07)ap-proc; Vishwakarma & Narlikar RAA(10)-a1010 [use in cosmology, critique]; Goobar & Leibundgut ARNPS(11)-a1102; Lochner et al a1303-proc [future]; Pruzhinskaya & Lisakov JAHH-a1608 [hist]; > s.a. cosmological acceleration.
@ From Pop III stars: Kurucz a0808 [population III are "duds"?]; de Souza et al MNRAS(13)-a1306 [detectability and the JWST]; Chen IJMPD(14)-a1407 [first-generation supernovae, rev].
@ Superluminous supernovae: Thomas et al AB(08)-a0705 [and eta Car]; Scalzo et al ApJ(09)-a1003 [super-Chandrasekhar-mass type-Ia supernova]; Miller PT(10)may; Gal-Yam SA(12)jun; Das & Mukhopadhyay IJMPD(12)-a1205-GRF, PRL(13)-a1301 + news pw(13)feb [and super-Chandrasekhar mass limit for strongly magnetized white dwarfs]; Smidt et al ApJ(14)-a1401 [population III hypernovae]; Scovacricchi et al MNRAS(16)-a1511 [and cosmology]; Sukhbold & Woosley ApJL(16)-a1602 [the most luminous ones].
@ Related topics: news nat(10)oct [Type II-P supernovae as standard candles]; Maeda et al ApJ(14)-a1408 [effect of a companion star]; Froggatt & Nielsen MPLA(15)-a1503 [dark matter as energy source]; Clavelli a1706 [nagging puzzles and new physics]; > s.a. black-hole phenomenology; dark matter and astrophysics; galaxies [velocity field]; nuclear physics; quantum phase transitions [QCD]; sources of gravitational radiation.

And Earth / In Our Galactic Neighborhood > s.a. astrophysical neutrinos; cosmological expansion and acceleration.
* Historical, galactic: The only recorded ones in our galaxy were in AD 185, 386 & 393 (Chinese records), 1006, 1054 (the "guest star" in Taurus, several times as bright as Venus, visible in the daytime for at least 23 days, that produced the Crab Nebula), 1181, 1572 (Tycho's SN in Cassiopeia), and 1604 (Kepler's SN in Ophiuchus); A less noticeable one occurred in 1667 or 1680, and its remnant is Cassiopeia A; The easily visible ones seem to be about 1/century, and the total 4 or so per century.
* Historical, extragalactic: The first one actually seen exploding was in 1983 [@ Niemela et al AJ(85)]; The first recent one close by on 23.02.1987, in LMC [SN 1987A; @ NS(90)feb24, p30-31]; 1998, Most distant one seen at z = 0.97; Many at cosmological distances have been seen since.
* Older nearby supernovae: Recent results (1999–2016) have confirmed at least two main supernova events at distances around 100 pc, one 1.7–3.2 Myr ago and one 6.5–8.7 Myr ago.
@ Historical supernovae: Collins et al PASP(99)ap [SN1054]; Blair ap/04-proc [Kepler's SN1604]; Gurzadyan Obs-a1207 [SN1054]; van Gent AN(13)-a1211 [India and SN1604]; Rada & Neuhäuser AN(15)-a1508, Neuhäuser et al AN(17)-a1604 [SN 1006, Arabic reports].
@ Older nearby supernovae: Knie et al PRL(99) [from 60Fe]; Fimiani et al PRL(16) [evidence for a 2 Myr old supernova from Moon samples]; Thomas et al a1605/ApJL [effects on Earth]; Crawford ch-a1608 [using the lunar geological record].
@ General references: Miknaitis et al ApJ(07)ap [ESSENCE survey]; Green BASI-a0905, BASI-a1409 [catalog of galactic remnants]; Gal-Yam et al PASP(13)-a1103 [2010-2011 discoveries]; news NASA(14)feb [NuSTAR shows that supernovae slosh before exploding]; news ut(14)nov [fast algorithm to classify supernova candidates].


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