Cosmic-String Phenomenology  

Structure Formation, Comic-Microwave-Background Anisotropies
* Galaxy formation: Loops can act as seeds for galaxies or clusters (depending on size); Fitting observations indicates = 10−6; Correlations are ok initially, but may not survive loop fragmentation; 2004, Cosmic strings are ruled out as the primary source of perturbations, since cosmic microwave background anisotropies significantly differ from the anisotropies predicted as the result of topological defects.
@ General references: Shlaer et al JCAP(12)-a1202; Duplessis & Brandenberger JCAP(13)-a1302 [distribution of dark matter halos].
@ And cmb perturbations: Brandenberger ap/96; Pen ap/98-proc [problem with cmb]; Riazuelo et al PRD(00)ap/99; Sakellariadou ap/99-proc; Durrer ap/00; Gangui et al NAR(02)ap/01; Jeong & Smoot ApJ(05)ap/04 [WMAP, search]; Perivolaropoulos NPPS(05)ap [rev]; Jeong & Smoot ApJL(07)ap/06 [technique]; Amsel et al JCAP(08)-a0709; Bevis et al PRL(08); news pw(08)jan; Pogosian et al JCAP(09)-a0804; Hindmarsh et al PRD(09)-a0908 [temperature bispectrum]; Jeong et al JCAP(10)-a1004; Ringeval AiA(10)-a1005 [and cmb non-Gaussianities]; Bevis et al PRD(10); Dvorkin et al PRD(11)-a1109 [constraints from WMAP and the South Pole Telescope]; Anthonisen et al JCAP(16)-a1509 [distortions from cosmic string loops]; Charnock et al PRD(16)-a1603 [constraints on ΛCDM and string network parameters]; Hergt et al JCAP(17)-a1608 [in cmb anisotropy maps].
@ And cmb polarization: Sakellariadou PRD(14)-a1403 [implications of the BICEP2 data for the thermal history of the universe].
@ And matter distribution: Poltis & Stojković PRL(10) + news knox(10)oct [evidence in quasar alignment]; Barton et al JCAP(15)-a1502, Lin et al JCAP(15)-a1508 [as seeds for globular cluster formation]; Anthonisen et al PRD(15)-a1504 [constraints from ultracompact minihalos].

Light Bending / Electromagnetic Waves > s.a. types of gravitational lensing.
* Observation: 1986, series of letters to Nature claiming they had been observed; E Turner thought he saw a double image of a quasar, showing very strong lens effect; B Paczyński interpreted it as a cosmic string or a huge black hole; Others compared the two images at other frequencies, and discovered they were not the same object; 2003, the galaxy image pair CSL-1 was considered to be a good candidate, but it 2005 they were shown to be different galaxies.
@ Reported evidence: Turner et al Nat(86)may + refutation Shaver & Cristiani Nat(86)jun [apparent double quasar image].
@ Lensing surveys: Mack et al PRD(07)ap; Chernoff & Tye a0709 [microlensing search]; Christiansen et al PRD(08); Morganson et al MNRAS(10)-a0908; Thomas et al PRL(09)-a0909 [and galaxy rotation]; Pshirkov & Tuntsov PRD(10)-a0911 [photometry and pulsar timing]; Christiansen et al PRD(11)-a1008.
@ Other effects on electromagnetic waves: Brandenberger et al JCAP(10)-a1006, McDonough & Brandenberger JCAP(13)-a1109 [wakes, 21-cm signature]; Steer & Vachaspati PRD(11)-a1012 [light emission]; Fernández-Núñez & Bulashenko PLA(16)-a1605 [wave diffraction]; Brandenberger et al a1707 [cosmic string cusps and radio bursts].

Other Effects and General References > s.a. gravitating matter / astronomical objects [B fields]; phase; inflation; sources of gravitational waves.
* Effects: They induce transverse motion in nearby moving objects; Doppler shifts; One of the key signatures of cosmic strings is their gravitational-wave production.
* Bounds: Any loops still inside our galaxy are ≤ 30 pc in radius (size of the galaxy at horizon crossing time).
@ General references: Kibble PRP(80); Turok PRL(85); Vilenkin PRP(85); NS(90)oct6, p29; Brandenberger IJMPA(94) [rev], Pra(98)hp-ln; Berezinsky et al PRD(98)ap; Pogosian JCAP(04)ap [Bayesian analysis]; Brandenberger a1401-Univ [rev]; news cosmos(18)apr [overview].
@ Observational signatures: Brandenberger NPPS(13)-a1301 [in cmb polarization and 21-cm maps]; LIGO & Virgo PRD(18)-a1712 [constraints from LIGO].
@ SUSY GUTs and cosmology: Jeannerot et al PRD(03)hp; Rocher & Sakellariadou hp/04/PRL, JCAP(05)hp/04.
@ And black holes: Page PRD(98)gq [capture by a Kerr-Newman black hole]; Ashoorioon & Mann CQG(14)-a1402 + CQG+ [with black holes as beads]; Stuchlík & Kološ PRD(14)-a1403 [microquasars and string loops oscillating in the field of Kerr black holes]; Bramberger et al JCAP(15)-a1503 [as seeds for supermassive black holes]; Brandenberger et al a2103 [intermediate-mass black holes]; > s.a. primordial black holes.
@ Effects on gravitational and other waves: Fernández-Núñez & Bulashenko PLA(16)-a1605 + news at(16)may [diffraction]; Ellis & Lewicki PRL(21)-a2009, Blasi et al PRL(21)-a2009 [NANOGrav]; Abbott et al a2101 [constraints from LIGO-Virgo data].
@ Related topics: Mazur PRL(86) [Aharonov-Bohm effect]; Firouzjahi et al PRD(09)-a0907 [effects of collisions]; Berezinsky PRD(11)-a1108, Lunardini & Sabancilar PRD(12)-a1206 [production of extremely-high-energy neutrinos].
> Related topics: see black-hole phenomenology, formation and solutions; chaotic motion; light [propagation in curved spacetimes]; scattering; topological defects; types of metrics.

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