Gamma-Ray Bursts  

In General > s.a. gamma-ray astronomy / sources of gravitational waves; cosmological parameters.
* 1998: Are they due to the coalescence of binary neutron stars? A typical length is about 100 s.
* 1999: First one observed optically while active; They seem to signal the birth of stellar-mass black holes.
* 2006: They only tend to occur in small, misshapen "metal-poor" galaxies, unlike the Milky Way [@ news pw(06)apr].
* 2009: GRB 090423, seen by the Swift satellite, had z = 8.3 [@ news NASA(09)apr; Tanvir et al Nat(09)-a0906; news ns(09)oct].
* 2012: Their status as sources of high-energy cosmic rays questioned by IceCube results showing too few neutrinos coming from GRBs.
* 2013: Evidence that short-duration grbs (lasting less than two seconds) are produced by the merger of compact objects, such as neutron stars.
* 2016: There is mounting evidence for the binary nature of the progenitors.
@ General references: Piran GRG(96)gq, PRP(99)ap/98, PRP(00)ap/99-proc [fireball model]; Tavani ap/98-conf; Heinz & Begelman ApJL(99)ap [shotgun model]; Woosley AIP(00)ap/99 [engine]; Zimmerman ThSc(00)jan; Zhang Nat(06)ap [new type]; Lamb NCB(06) [and cosmology]; Lü et al ApJ(10)-a1001 [classification]; news at(12)apr [IceCube detector sees too few neutrinos for fireball model]; Littlejohns et al MNRAS(13)-a1309 [high vs low-redshift]; Ruffini et al ApJ(16)-a1602 [sources]; Zhang 18 [physics].
@ Reviews: Hartmann ThSc(92)jul [sources]; Fishman & Hartmann SA(97)jul; Rees ap/97; Mészáros PTPS(99)ap-conf; Piran gq/02-GR16, RMP(04)ap; Hjorth et al pw(04)oct; Mörtsell & Sollerman JCAP(05)ap [future]; Mészáros RPP(06)ap; Ghisellini PoS-ap/06 [and blazars]; De Rújula a0711-ln; Grindlay Nat(08)sep-a0901 [long-lasting]; Stamatikos IJMPD(09)-a0904-proc; Vedrenne & Atteia 09; McBreen et al a1003-proc; Nakar a1009-proc; Ghisellini IAU(11)-a1010; Ruffini IJMPD(11)-a1107-MG12, Rico a1111-proc [and fundamental physics]; Mészáros APP(12)-1204; Gomboc CP(12)-a1206; Berger ARAA(14)-a1311 [short-duration GRBs]; Kumar & Zhang PRP(15)-a1410; Horváth a1903 [hist]; Rueda et al Univ-a1905.
@ And cosmology: Bromm & Loeb a0706-in [as early-universe probes]; Amati a0908-proc [cosmological parameters]; Tsutsui et al a1205/JCAP [as distance indicators]; Wei & Wu IJMPD(17)-a1607-MG14 [as standard candles].
@ Spectral time lags: Pavlopoulos PLB(05)ap; Amelino-Camelia et al a1707; Chaichian et al a2101-conf [explanations without Lorentz symmetry breaking].
@ Other effects: Annis JBIS(99)ap [and life]; Thomas et al ApJ(05)ap [on Earth]; Kocevski & Petrosian a1110/ApJ [time-dilation effects]; news bbc(13)jan [AD 774-775]; Piran & Jimenez PRL(14) [life extinctions]; Gowanlock ApJ(16)-a1609 [astrobiological].
@ Related topics: King et al ApJL(05)ap [restarting the engine]; Savaglio NJP(06) [as probes of chemical evolution]; Lieu ApJ(08)ap/07 [gravitational time delay]; Bloom et al ApJ(09)-a0803 [naked-eye GRB 080319B]; Song a0805 ["redshift is gravitational"]; Dado & Dar a0910/ApJ [high-energy photons]; news nat(10)nov [and magnetars]; Coward et al PoS-a1206 [optical selection effects]; Shenoy et al ApJ(13)-a1304 [curvature effects]; Wiersema et al Nat(14)may [circular polarization in the optical afterglow]; > s.a. neutrinos; neutron stars [GRB precursors].
> And quantum gravity: see quantum gravity phenomenology; tests of lorentz violation.

Sources and Mechanisms
* Types: Long "soft" ones (with a duration > 2 s) are due to massive star collapse explosions; Short, hard ones (0.1 s or so) to compact binary coalescence.
* Models: Fireball (synchrotron radiation from colliding shells); Cannonball (jet from infalling matter).
@ Theory: Mészáros ARAA(02)ap/01; Dermer ap/02-conf; De Rújula ap/03-proc; Dar & De Rújula PRP(04)ap/03; Amelino-Camelia hp/05-conf [and Planck-scale physics]; Covino Sci(07)-a0705 [mechanism]; Lyutikov a0911-proc; Granot & Ramírez-Ruiz a1012-ch [and jets]; Piran et al a1206-proc [origin]; Rezzolla & Kumar ApJ(15)-a1410 [short GRBs, novel paradigm].
@ Supernovas: Mohapatra et al APP(00)ap/99 [mirror supernovas]; Paczyński ap/99-proc; Soderberg AIP(06)ap [rev]; Woosley & Bloom ARAA(06); Hjorth & Bloom a1104-ch; Cano a1208-PhD.
@ Microscopic / primordial black holes: Casadio et al AIP(02)ap; Cline & Otwinowski a0908 [estimate].
@ Superconducting cosmic strings: Berezinsky et al PRD(01)ap/00; Cheng et al PRL(10)-a1005 + news ng(10)aug.
@ Neutron stars: Rosswog ap/05 [neutron star–black hole binaries]; Ruiz et al ApJ(16)-a1604 [binary neutron star mergers].
@ Simulations on Earth: Warwick et al PRL(18) + news giz(18)jan [plasma beam].
@ Sources, other: Kundt ChJAA-ap/03 [galactic origin?]; Paczyński & Haensel MNRAS(05)ap [and quark star formation – support in Lazzati MNRAS(05)ap/04]; Virgili et al ApJ(11)-a0909; Metzger et al MNRAS(11)-a1012 [proto-magnetar model].

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