Cosmological-Constant Phenomenology  

Measurements and Observation > s.a. black-hole radiation; cosmological models; dark energy; quintessence.
* Value: The universe appears to have a positive cosmological constant; From small clusters of galaxies, |ρvacuum| = |Λ| / 8π < 10–57 cm–2; From the fact that the radius of curvature of the observable universe is basically infinite, Λ < 10–122 lP–2; From 2001 cosmological model, 2.036 × 10–35 s–2; 2003, WMAP results indicate Λ = LU–2, LU = 2.85 ± 0.25 Mpc, or equivalent amount of dark energy.
@ Measurement: Phillips MNRAS(94); Balaguera-Antolínez et al IJMPD(05)gq/04 [astrophysical bounds]; Vanderveld et al PRD(07)-a0706, Romano & Chen IJMPD(11)-a1208-GRF, EPJC(14)-a1207 [apparent vs true value, and corrections from inhomogeneities]; Chiba & Nakamura PTP(07)-a0708 [null test].
@ And lensing: Kochanek ApJ(96)ap/95 [Λ < 0.66, flat cosmology]; Cheng & Krauss IJMPA(00)ap/98 [0.25 < Λ < 0.55, flat cosmology].
@ And cosmology: in Visser 95 [geometry]; Krauss ApJ(97)ap/96 [Λ < 0], ApJ(98)ap/97, AIP(98)hp [age of galaxies]; Ishak et al MNRAS(08)-a0710 [lensing]; Klinkhamer PRD(12)-a1107 [cosmological-constant canceling and inflation]; Zwane et al a1703 [everpresent Λ].
@ And other astronomy: Sereno & Jetzer PRD(06)ap [solar and stellar systems]; Iorio IJMPD(06), AiA(08)-a0710 [solar system]; Erni & Tammann ap/06 [nearby supernovas]; Jetzer & Sereno NCB(07)-a0711-proc [solar system].
@ The case for non-zero cosmological constant: Efstathiou et al Nat(90)dec; Krisciunas JRASC(93)ap; Krauss & Turner GRG(95); Ostriker & Steinhardt Nat(95)oct; Roos & Harun-or-Rashid A&A(98)ap/97; Neupane gq/98; Zehavi & Dekel Nat(99)ap; Frampton ap/99-conf; Lineweaver ap/99 [obs]; Mannheim ap/99-TX20, ap/99-proc, ApJ(01)ap/99 [conformal gravity]; Carmeli & Kuzmenko AIP(01)ap, IJTP(02)ap/01 [cosmological model]; Trotta et al PRD(03)ap/02 [Bayesian vs frequentist]; Böhmer ap/05-wd; Lee JKPS(13)-a1003 [from the holographic principle]; Frampton MPLA(13)-a1205 [of value < 10–124, in Planck units]; Padmanabhan a1210.

Consequences of Non-Zero Cosmological Constant > s.a. cosmological acceleration.
* Cosmological acceleration: In Einstein's equation a cosmological constant can be seen as a contribution to the energy-momentum tensor, representing a constant energy and pressure (of the opposite sign) and driving the acceleration of the cosmological expansion.
@ General references: Cohn ASS(98)ap; Axenides et al MPLA(00)ap [modified motion]; Banks ht/00, GRG(03)ht [supersymmetry breaking]; Miguel & Pereira IJMPD(01)gq/00 [speed of light]; Dyson et al JHEP(02)ht [and holography]; Böhmer & Harko PLB(05) [minimum mass]; Balaguera-Antolinez et al CQG(06)gq/95; Nowakowski & Balaguera-Antolinez AIP(06)ap [in astrophysics]; Dolan MPLA(15)-a1408 [thermodynamic interpretation, as pressure]; Ashtekar a1706-RPP [rev].
@ Galaxies: Whitehouse & Kraniotis ap/99 [rotation curves]; Peirani & De Freitas A&A(08)-a0806 [groups]; Barnes et al MNRAS(18), Salcido et al MNRAS(18) [formation, simulations].
@ Cosmological acceleration: Giulini & Straumann ap/00; Zunckel & Clarkson PRL(08) [consistency tests]; Bianchi & Rovelli a1002, Triay a1004-conf [in favor]; Linder PRD(10); Frampton & Ludwick EPJC(11)-a1103 [how to observationally distinguish]; Shafieloo NPPS(14)-1401.
@ And quantum gravity: Dvali & Gómez a1412 [inconsistency of a positive cosmological constant].
> Gravitational effects: see gravitational phenomenology [PN]; propagation of gravitational waves; tests of general relativity.
> Other effects: see energy [virial theorem]; galaxy distribution.

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