Star Clusters  

In General
* Distance determination: For nearby clusters (10–100 pc), extended parallax, convergent point method; For distant ones (100s of pc), apparent magnitude and color index; For globular clusters, variable stars in them.
* Open clusters: They contain hundreds of much younger stars (up to a few tens of millions of years old); They are distributed in the disk of the galaxy, mainly in the spiral arms, and are more easily dispersed; Examples are the Hyades and the Pleiades (both in Taurus).
@ General references: Elmegreen & Efremov AS(98) [formation]; Merritt ANYAS(05)ap [Kandrup's work on relaxation]; Cardona 10 [field guide]; de Grijs a1107-conf [birth, evolution and death]; Stahler PT(12)oct [birth and death].
@ Open clusters: von Hippel ASP-ap/05 [galactic]; Elmegreen ap/06-conf [hierarchical patterns]; Moitinho IAU(10)-a0911 [and the galaxy]; Converse & Stahler MNRAS(10)-a1002 [Pleiades, dynamical evolution simulation results]; Gieles & Portegies Zwart MNRAS(11)-a1010 [vs associations]; Pelupessy & Portegies Zwart MNRAS(12)-a1111 [embedded]; Salaris proc(14)-a1409 [rev]; news nat(14)aug [is the Hipparcos distance to the Pleaides wrong?].
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

Globular Clusters > s.a. galaxies [and dwarf galaxies]; pulsars.
* Idea: Stable, population II objects (with low abundance of heavy elements), with hundreds of thousands of stars and characteristic relative HR diagrams; We know almost 200 in the Milky Way galaxy, distributed mainly in the galactic halo, and many in other galaxies (including the Magellanic Clouds); Many contain variable stars, for example M3 and M13.
@ General references: Hénon AA(61)-a1103, AA(65)-a1103; Meylan ap/99-proc [dynamics]; Leon et al A&A-ap/00 [tidal stripping]; Maccarone & Knigge A&G(07)-a0709 [compact objects, rev]; Cezario A&A(13)-a1211 [in MW and M31, ages and metallicities]; Benacquista & Downing LRR(13) [relativistic binaries]; Bel a1404 [new kinetic model].
@ Formation, evolution: Krauss PRP(00)ap/99-in [ages]; Zepf ap/03-in [evolution]; Bekki et al MNRAS(08)-a0804 [simulation results]; Cohen IAU(10)-a0909 [and galaxy formation/evolution]; Forbes & Bridges MNRAS(10)-a1001 [accreted versus formed in situ]; Renzini a1302-proc [formation]; Chantereau et al IAU(15)-a1408 [massive star archeology]; Charbonnel et al A&A(14)-a1410 [and first-generation stars]; Renaud et al MNRAS-a1610 [two types]; Carretta a1611-conf [multiple stellar populations].
@ And dark matter halos: Ibata et al MNRAS(12)-a1210; Boylan-Kolchin a1705.
@ In the Milky Way: Harris a1012 [catalog]; Zaritzsky et al ApJL(16)-a1604 [Milky Way GCs hosted by undetected subhalos (dwarf galaxies)]; Binney & Wong a1701 [modelling].
@ Specific types: Zepf & Ashman SA(03)oct [young globular clusters]; Kissler-Patig et al A&A(06)ap/05 [large ones, vs dwarf galaxies]; Lee et al proc(11)-a1011 [wandering globular clusters]; Gratton et al A&A(11)-a1105 [different populations in Omega Cen].
@ Specific clusters: Caldwell et al ApJL-a1402 [hypervelocity globular cluster near M87]; Laevens et al ApJL(14)-a1403 [the most distant MW globular cluster known]; di Tullio & Zinn AJ(15)-a1503, Mackey et al MNRAS(16)-a1604 [search for Intergalactic Globular Clusters in the Local Group].


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