Acceleration  

In General > s.a. Fermi Acceleration; physics teaching; reference frame; rindler space [uniform acceleration].
* Idea: The concept of acceleration as rate of change of velocity in time (as opposed to rate of change in space, for example), seems to be due to Galileo.
* Accelerometers: 2014, Current accelerometers for submarines (used to pinpoint their position under water without having to surface to use the GPS) are accurate to within 1 km after traveling one day; An accelerometer being developed in the UK, based on the quantum interference of ultracold atoms, will be accurate to within 1 m; Further improvements are being planned.
@ Maximal acceleration: Caianello LNC(81); Brandt FPL(89) [and 4-velocity fiber bundle over spacetime]; Pati EPL(92) [for a quantum particle]; Papini NCB(02); Feoli IJMPD(03) [different values]; Papini qp/04 [and superconductors]; Gallego gq/05 [Finsler models]; Friedman a0912 [test]; Rovelli & Vidotto PRL(13)-a1307 [from spin-foam quantum gravity]; Brandt a1311 [and the quantum-to-classical transition]; Gallego CQG(15)-a1404 [geometry and kinematics]; > s.a. kerr spacetime; modified lorentz symmetry.
> Theories with critical accelerations: see modifications of general relativity; MOND.
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

Relativistic / Covariant
* Idea: Acceleration is a well-defined concept; It can be measured with a box and a mass with springs, and does not need a specification of "with respect to what", contrary to the situation with velocity.
$ Covariant definition: The 4-vector Aa:= ubb ua, perpendicular to the world-line, Aa ua = 0.
* In general relativity: A world-line accelerates only if subject to non-gravitational forces; Objects in free fall follow geodesics Aa = 0.
@ Relativistic: Rindler & Mishra PLA(93) [relative acceleration in special relativity]; Bini et al CQG(95) [transformation law in general relativity]; Lyutikov a0903 [reversal of centrifugal acceleration]; Llosa a1507 [coordinate transformation laws and infinitesimal generators]; Friedman & Scarr GRG(15)-a1602 [uniform acceleration, in an arbitrary curved spacetime]; Abramowicz a1608 [covariant definitions and confusions].
> Acceleration of the cosmological expansion: see cosmic acceleration; quantum field theory effects in curved spacetime.

Effects / Phenomenology
@ Measurement, accelerometers: Dragan et al PRD(11)-a1007 [Unruh-DeWitt detector as quantum accelerometer]; Dickerson et al PRL(13) + Bouter Phy(13) [use of atom interferometers]; news pw(14)may [accelerometer under development].
@ Effects on atoms: Marino et al PS(14)-a1404 [and interactions]; Dahia & Felix de Araujo CQG(15)-a1412 [atomic clocks]; Zhang FP(16)-a1612 [accelerated atom coupled to electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations].
@ Astrophysical effects: Chicone et al PLA(11) [particle acceleration by varying gravitational fields and cosmic jets].
> Gravity-related phenomena: see astrophysics; matter near black holes [particle acceleration]; unruh effect [accelerated detectors].
> Other particle-related phenomena: see anomalous acceleration [Pioneer effect]; acceleration radiation [accelerated charges].


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