Acceleration |

**In General **> s.a. Fermi
Acceleration; physics teaching; reference
frame; rindler space [uniform
acceleration].

* __Idea__: The concept
of acceleration as rate of change of velocity in time (as opposed to rate
of change in space, for example), seems to be due to Galileo.

* __Accelerometers__:
2014, Current accelerometers for submarines (used to pinpoint their
position under water without having to surface to use the GPS) are
accurate to within 1 km after traveling one day; An accelerometer being
developed in the UK, based on the quantum interference of ultracold atoms,
will be accurate to within 1 m; Further improvements are being planned.

@ __Maximal acceleration__: Caianello LNC(81);
Brandt FPL(89)
[and
4-velocity fiber bundle over spacetime]; Pati EPL(92)
[for a quantum particle]; Papini NCB(02);
Feoli IJMPD(03)
[different values];
Papini qp/04 [and
superconductors]; Gallego gq/05 [Finsler
models]; Friedman a0912 [test]; Rovelli & Vidotto PRL(13)-a1307 [from spin-foam quantum gravity]; Brandt a1311 [and the quantum-to-classical transition]; Gallego CQG(15)-a1404 [geometry and kinematics]; > s.a. kerr
spacetime; modified lorentz symmetry.

> __Theories with
critical accelerations__:
see modifications of general relativity; MOND.

> __Online resources__:
see Wikipedia page.

**Relativistic / Covariant**

* __Idea__:
Acceleration is a well-defined concept; It can be measured with a box and
a mass with springs, and does not need a specification of "with respect to
what", contrary to the situation with velocity.

$ __Covariant definition__: The
4-vector *A*^{a}:= *u*^{b} ∇_{b} *u*^{a},
perpendicular to the world-line, *A*^{a} *u*_{a} = 0.

* __In general relativity__:
A world-line accelerates only if subject to non-gravitational forces;
Objects in free fall follow geodesics *A*^{a} = 0.

@ __Relativistic__: Rindler & Mishra PLA(93)
[relative
acceleration in special relativity]; Bini et
al CQG(95)
[transformation
law in general relativity]; Lyutikov a0903 [reversal of centrifugal
acceleration]; Llosa a1507 [coordinate transformation laws and infinitesimal generators]; Friedman
& Scarr GRG(15)-a1602 [uniform acceleration, in an arbitrary curved spacetime]; Abramowicz a1608 [covariant definitions and confusions].

> __Acceleration of
the cosmological expansion__:
see cosmic
acceleration; quantum field theory
effects in curved
spacetime.

**Effects / Phenomenology**

@ __Measurement, accelerometers__: Dragan et al PRD(11)-a1007 [Unruh-DeWitt detector as quantum accelerometer]; Dickerson et al PRL(13)
+ Bouter Phy(13)
[use of atom interferometers]; news pw(14)may
[accelerometer under development].

@ __Effects on atoms__:
Marino et al PS(14)-a1404 [and interactions]; Dahia & Felix de Araujo CQG(15)-a1412 [atomic clocks]; Zhang FP(16)-a1612 [accelerated atom coupled to electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations].

@ __Astrophysical effects__: Chicone et al PLA(11)
[particle acceleration by varying gravitational fields and cosmic jets].

> __Gravity-related
phenomena__: see astrophysics; matter
near black holes [particle acceleration]; unruh
effect [accelerated detectors].

> __Other
particle-related phenomena__:
see anomalous acceleration [Pioneer
effect]; acceleration radiation [accelerated
charges].

main page – abbreviations – journals – comments – other
sites – acknowledgements

send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at olemiss.edu – modified
7 may 2017