QCD Effects  

Confinement > s.a. Confinement; Gribov Ambiguity; lattice gauge theory; particle models; types of yang-mills theories; unified theories.
* Idea: The conjecture that all observable objects are gauge-singlet bound states of quarks and gluons; A non-perturbative feature of non-abelian gauge theories which is not well understood theoretically, but seems to be dominated by an abelian sector; It can be treated in lattice theories; Phenomenologically, it seems to be describable by the addition of a \(|F^i_{ab} F^{iab}|^{1/2}\) term to the Lagrangian.
* Question: Is it related to the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry?
@ Reviews: Fucito ht/97-conf [introduction]; Dittmann et al NPPS(02)hl/01 [effective theories]; Greensite PPNP(03)hl [lattice]; Bruckmann PoS-a0710; Shifman IJMPA(10); Alkofer et al AIP(11)-a1012 [panel discussion]; Reinhardt a1804-ln [effective approaches].
@ General references: Sniatycky & Schwartz RPMP(94) [invariance argument]; Simonov SPU(96); Schaden & Rozenberg PRD(98) [covariant gauge]; Reinhardt NPPS(99)ht/98 [as dual Meißner effect]; Bali ht/98-conf; Cho PRD(00)ht/99; Kondo & Taira MPLA(00)ht/99 [SU(3)], PTP(00)ht/99 [SU(N)]; Chaichian & Kobayashi PLB(00); Chernodub et al PLB(00)hp; Frønsdal LMP(01) [as quantization problem]; Efimov TMP(04) [and stability]; Gogokhia a0704; Tomboulis a0707, comment Ito & Seiler a0711, a0803, reply a0712 [4D SU(2), proof]; Kondo PRD(10)-a1005 [theoretical framework for derivation]; Ogilvie PTRS(10)-a1010-conf [renormalization-group methods]; Frasca a1110; Di Giacomo EPJWC(13)-a1310; Gao et al a1802 [origin of confinement].
@ Models: Delfino & Grinza NPB(08)-a0706 [in q-state Potts field theory]; Kol et al JHEP(14)-a1403 [relation between confinement and phase transitions in the entanglement entropy]; Kharzeev a1509-fs [fluctuating topology in the QCD vacuum and confinement]; Chatterjee a2006 [probabilistic]; > s.a. Bag Model.
@ Perturbative approach: 't Hooft NPPS(03)ht/02; Dudal PLB(09)-a0905; Reinosa EPJwc(16)-a1609 [progress].
@ Phase transition: Langfeld AIP(05)ht/04; Ejiri et al PLB(06) [hadronic fluctuations]; Irges & Knechtli PLB(10)-a0910 [new approach]; Aarts Phy(14) [lattice-QCD calculation]; Glozman a1508 [deconfinement at high temperatures?]; Chernodub et al PRD(17)-a1709 [deconfinement and the Casimir effect]; Raval & Mandal a1805 [as a PT phase transition]; Hanada et al a1812 [partially deconfined phase]; Boyda et al a2009 [machine learning techniques]; > s.a. early-universe baryogenesis; Hagedorn Temperature; quantum phase transitions.
@ Related topics: Gaete & Guendelman PLB(04) [Coulomb interaction and screening]; Chernodub JETPL(06)ht/05 [and liquid-crystal defects]; Greensite & Olejník hl/06 [2+1, from gauge invariance]; Goncharov & Firsova IJTP(10)-a1004 [classical model]; Bourgine IJMPA(14) [and Mayer cluster expansions].
@ And new physics: Álvarez & Gómez JHEP(00)ht [and strings]; Berman & Parikh PLB(00) [and AdS-cft]; Balachandran MPLA(16)-a1509 [breaking of Lorentz invariance and color].

Other Effects > s.a. dark energy; gravitational-wave background; instantons; quantum gravity and matter; quantum phase transitions.
* Quark nuggets: Hypothetical particles with a possibly very large baryon number; They have been proposed as possible relics of a first-order QCD phase transitions in the early universe, that could have survived up to now and can be regarded as a candidate for cold dark matter.
* Strangelets: Hypothetical stable or semi-stable particles which contain strange quarks; Theorists have predicted that such entities could survive for long periods inside neutron stars and might be produced in the heavy ion collisions going on at the RHIC machine at Brookhaven; Shown not to lead to dangerous runaway reactions.
@ And astrophysics: Xiaoping et al NA(06)ap/03; Alford et al Nat(07)ap/06 [in compact stars]; Alford & Sedrakian JPG(10)-a1001 [color-superconducting quark matter, color-magnetic flux tubes in neutron stars]; Lai & Xu JCAP(10) [and seed black holes]; Weber et al IJMPD(10) [in neutron stars]; Boeckel et al JPG(10)-a1002-conf [astrophysics and cosmology]; Burgio et al PoS-a1301 [neutron-star interiors and the quark-matter equation of state]; > s.a. Quark Stars.
@ Quark matter, strange quark nuggets: Dar et al PLB(99); Jaffe et al RMP(00); Madsen PRL(00); Anderson et al ap/02 [and seismic events]; Herrin et al PRD(06)ap/05 [seismic search]; Madsen ap/06-conf [rev]; Kurkela et al PRD(10)-a1001 + Alford Phy(10) [cold quark matter]; Schaefer a1001-proc [dense quark matter]; Schmitt LNP(10)-a1001 [dense nuclear/quark matter]; Astone et al a1306-conf [search using gravitational-wave bar detectors]; Atreya et al PRD(14)-a1405, Lawson & Zhitnitsky PLB(16)-a1510 [as dark matter candidate]; > s.a. types of superconductivity.
@ Search for fractional charges: LaRue, Phillips & Fairbank PRL(81).
@ And nuclear physics: Schulte et al PRL(01) + pn(01)aug [electrons on d]; Beane PRA(04) [rev].
@ Particle propagation: Guhr et al PRL(00) [as disordered system]; Dietrich PRD(05) [gluons in non-trivial backgrounds]; > s.a. classical particles.
@ High-density / condensed-matter phase: Rajagopal & Shuster PRD(00)hp; Rajagopal & Wilczek hp/00-fs, PRL(01)hp/00; Yamamoto & Kanazawa PRL(09) [finite volume]; Reinhardt & Weigel PRD(12)-a1201; news pw(12)oct [color glass condensate]; Maas et al PRD(12)-a1203 + news jena(13)jan [G2-group-based QCD-like theory for Monte-Carlo simulations].
@ Related topics: Gasser et al PRP(08) [hadronic atoms]; Brodsky AIP(11)-a1012 [at the LHC]; > s.a. Chiral Symmetry; QCD [in curved spacetime]; Quarkonium; theta sectors; thermodynamical systems; wave-function collapse [flavor oscillations]; Zweig Rule.

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