Photon Phenomenology  

Photon Propagation in General > s.a. diffraction; dispersion; interference; light [including special propagation physics; orbital L]; wave phenomena.
* In modified QED vacua: In the low-energy (\(\hbar\omega \ll m_{\rm e}c^2)\) approximation, the speed of propagation can be written as

v = 1 − (44α2/135) (u / me4) ,

where u is the (renormalized) background energy density, and the coefficient is related to the trace anomaly of the energgy-momentum tensor, for weak background fields.
@ General references: Cialdi et al NJP(09) [superluminal propagation]; Zhang et al PRL(11) + news physorg(11)jun [not superluminal]; Razmi & Zamani IJPR-a1308 [QED corrections at low temperature]; Karbstein & Shaisultanov PRD(15)-a1503 [in slowly-varying inhomogeneous electromagnetic fields].
@ In modified QED vacua: Latorre et al NPB(95)ht/94; Gies & Dittrich PLB(98)hp, Dittrich & Gies PRD(98)hp [non-trivial]; Cougo-Pinto et al PLB(99); Shukla et al PLA(04) [radiation background]; Cho et al PRD(06) [constant E and B]; Mendonça et al PLA(06); > s.a. casimir effect.
@ Interaction with matter in general: Chen & Kotlarchyk 07; Saldanha & Monken NJP(11) [photon-wave-function approach].
@ Effective mass: van der Mark & 't Hooft in(00)-a1508 [on its gravitational mass]; Robles & Claro EJP(12) [apparent dynamical mass]; news ns(13)oct [photons with negative effective mass]; Katkov NIMB(15)-a1403 [in a strong magnetic field]; > s.a. photon [mass].
@ Non-linear media: Carusotto & Ciuti RMP(13) [quantum fluids of light]; Liang et al Sci(18)feb-a1709 [bound states]; Carusotto Phys(20)apr [dressed by material excitations into polaron-polaritons, strongly interacting extended quasiparticles].
@ Special types of media: Antoci & Mihich NCB(01)gq [dielectrics, effective metric]; Özel ApJ(03)ap/02 [magnetized plasmas and quantum field theory]; Sudheesh et al JOB(05)qp [Kerr-like medium, non-classical aspects]; Inagaki NCB(03) [refractive]; Antoci & Mihich NCB(07)-a0705 [dielectrics]; Zheng a1305 [dilute ionized gas].
> Related topics: see aharonov-bohm effect; gas; polarization [including birefringence, dichroism]; Raman and Rayleigh Scattering; thermal radiation [Stefan-Boltzmann law for massive photons]; thermodynamic systems.

In Curved Spacetime / Cosmology > s.a. light; Raychaudhuri Equation; torsion in physics.
@ In Schwarzschild spacetime: Sehra gq/06; Turakulov & Muminov MPLA(06); Muminov & Turakulov MPLA(07)-a0706; > s.a. kerr-newman solutions.
@ In swiss-cheese models: Brouzakis et al JCAP(08)-ap/07; Marra et al PRD(07)-a0708; Szybka PRD(11)-a1012 [Lemaître-Tolman solutions, numerical].
@ In other curved spacetime: Gibbons PLB(93) [cosmic strings]; Manzano & Montemayor PRD(97) [rotating mass]; Mohanty & Prasanna NPB(98)gq; Okun MPLA(00), MPLA(00) [static gravitational fields]; Kopeikin et al CQG(06)gq [in multipole fields]; de Felice et al ApJ(06)ap [Solar System]; Ahmadi et al JCAP(08)gq/06 [in general, and NUT space]; Crosta CQG(11)-a1012 [light tracing]; Shalaby a1205 [propagation in a universe with discrete matter content]; Linet & Teyssandier CQG(13)-a1304, Teyssandier & Linet a1312-proc [light travel time in static, spherically symmetric spacetimes]; > s.a. FLRW spacetimes.
@ Curved-spacetime propagation effects: Shore NPB(02), NPB(02), CP(03)gq [causality]; Ahmadi & Nouri-Zonoz PRD(06)gq [effective Raychaudhuri equation]; Hollowood et al JHEP(09)-a0905 [quantum effects on refractive index]; Hollowood & Shore PLB(10)-a1005 [effect of gravitational tidal forces]; Galaverni & Gionti a2012 [quantum anomalies and helicity].
@ Photon mass and cosmology: Dolgov & Pelliccia PLB(07)hp/06 [consequences]; Kouwn et al PRD(16)-a1512 [as dark energy].
@ Dark photon: Lees et BaBar PRL(14) + Bryman Phy(14) [search in \(e^+e^-\) collisions, not found]; news LiveSci(15)feb, LiveSci(18)apr [not found]; > s.a. dark-matter types.
@ Related topics: Chatterjee et al MNRAS(17)-a1706 [time lag from astrophysical source]; news cosmos(18)nov [total number of photons in the universe]; > s.a. cosmic rays [including ultra-high energy]; QED in curved spacetime; quantum-gravity phenomenology.

Quantum Effects > s.a. atomic physics; effective field theory; experiments in quantum mechanics; locality; QED phenomenology.
* Entanglement: What is really entangled in an entangled state of light is not the photons [@ van Enk].
@ Wave / particle aspects: Arnaud AJP(74)jan [momentum]; Milonni in(83); Ghose et al PLA(91), PLA(92); Mizobuchi & Ohtaké PLA(92); Lamb APB(95) [against "photon" as a particle]; Razmi qp/98 [position and momentum]; Nisius PRP(00) [structure from e scattering]; Glück et al PLB(01) [structure functions]; Carmichael qp/01-conf [fluctuations]; Roncadelli et al JPCS(10)-a1002 [possible oscillation into light axionlike particle]; Brevik a1310-fs [momentum in media]; > s.a. axion; interference; quantum mechanics [wave-particle duality].
@ Photon-photon scattering: Rosen AJP(66)sep; Bern et al JHEP(01) [QCD and QED corrections]; Binoth et al JHEP(02) [susy QED, 2-loop]; Brodin et al PLA(03) [light bullets], PRD(06)gq [graviton-mediated]; Lundström et al PRL(06) [proposed experiment]; d'Enterria & da Silveira PRL(13), news sn(17)aug [at the LHC]; Vavilov tr-a1708 [optical experiment]; Scharnhorst a1711.
@ Entanglement: Bouwmeester et al PRL(99) [3-photon]; van Enk PRA(03)qp/02, qp/04-conf, & Hirota PRA(05)qp/04; Eisenberg et al PRL(04)qp [many photons]; Sun & Kuang ChP(06)qp/05 [and non-locality]; Franson PRL(06) [two-photon absorption]; Zhang et al JPB(06)qp [in cavity QED]; Lvovsky Phy(09) [viewpoint, 6-photon states immune from environmental decoherence]; Samblowski et al AIP(11)-a1011 [light of two colors]; Barrett Phy(11) [photons stored in spatially separated superconducting resonators]; Morin et al PRL(13)-a1206 [single-photon entanglement]; Fickler et al Nat(12)nov-a1207 [with very high orbital angular momenta]; Megidish et al PRL(13)-a1209 [pair of photons that never coexisted]; Iskhakov et al PRL(12) + news pw(12)oct [light pulses comprising 100,000 entangled photons]; Mitchell & Beduini NJP(14)-a1304 [highly multipartite in polarization-squeezed light]; Jeong et al nPhot(14)-a1309 [quantum and classical states]; news nat(14)feb [photons from distant quasars]; > s.a. entangled systems [photon + atom, photon + spin waves, multiphoton].
@ Parametric down-conversion: Hübel et al Nat(10)jul + news nat(10)jul [generation of photon triplets]; Walborn et al PRP(10) [rev, spatial correlations].
@ Light standstill: Kocharovskaya et al qp/00; Turukhin et al PRL(02) + pn(02)jan; Zibrov et al PRL(02) [transport]; >–s.a. light.
@ Other effects and descriptions: Lee et al PRP(03) [photon splitting]; de la Torre EJP(05)qp/04, qp/04, qp/05 [description, and electromagnetic field]; news at(13)sep [photons behaving like mutually attractive massive particles]; Miwa et al PRL(14) + news Phys(14)jul [squeezing and unsqueezing, two-way conversion between particlelike single-photon states and wavelike superpositions of coherent states]; Just et al a1404 [detection of non-classical spacetime correlations]; Sokolovski a1607 [trajectories]; news nat(17)oct [photon pairing in materials]; news cosmos(18)feb [polariton-mediated entanglement]; > s.a. Goldstone Boson.
> Other effects: see Cerenkov Effect; Compton Effect; Cooper Pairs; force [measurement]; Photoelectric Effect; quantum field theory effects in curved spacetime.
> Related topics: see bose-einstein condensation; information; Laser; matter [mirror photon]; optical technology; photons [detection, wave function]; quantum optics; Solid Light; uncertainty relations [violation of error-disturbance relation]; phenomenology of uncertainty relations [modified dispersion relations].

main pageabbreviationsjournalscommentsother sitesacknowledgements
send feedback and suggestions to bombelli at – modified 11 dec 2020