In General > s.a. membranes.
* Idea: Fundamental objects are membranes of various dimensionalities living in 11D, the maximum allowed by supersymmetry.
* History: Proposed by Banks, Fischler, Shenker & Susskind; Called the "second string revolution" by E Witten, it has shown that the various types of string models are equivalent forms of the same underlying theory; 1994, Ashoke Sen showed that some predictions of duality are correct, and Seiberg & Witten applied duality to supersymmetric QCD; Black-hole entropy has been derived; 1997, It is hoped that it will lead to a new theory replacing quantum mechanics and general relativity; 2005, It is still not known how to quantize the theory.
@ II: Witten PT(96)apr; news Sci(97)jun [and black holes].
@ Intros / reviews: Duff IJMPA(96)ht, ht/98-in; Townsend ht/96-ln; Banks NPPS(98)ht/97; Bigatti & Susskind ht/97; Nicolai JAA(99)ht/98-conf; Bilal FdP(99)ht/97; Di Vecchia ht/97-in; Gauntlett CP(98); Gibbons gq/98-GR15; Li ht/98 [intro]; Duff SA(98)feb; Taylor ht/98-ln, ht/00-ln, RMP(01)ht; Schwarz PRP(99)ht/98 [and string theory]; Haack et al ht/99-ln; Marolf gq/99-proc; Ohta PTPS(02)gq-conf; Polchinski ht/02-conf; Schwarz IJMPA(10) [and superstring theory].
@ Books: Duff 99; Kaku 00; Becker et al 07.
@ Conceptual: Castro ht/98; Smolin AIP(02)ht [as non-local hidden-variable theories]; Banks ht/03.
@ Covariant / world-sheet formulation: Smolin PRD(98)ht/97, CSF(99)ht/98, PRD(00)ht/99; Ellis et al IJMPA(98)ht; Sato IJMPA(09).
@ Topological: Alam PRD(99)ht/01; Smolin NPB(06)ht/05 [quantization]; Addazi & Marcianò a1707, a1802 [H duality with lqg].
@ And string theory, supersymmetric Yang-Mills: Green LNP(99)ht.
@ And non-commutative geometry: Konechny & Schwarz PRP(02)ht/00 + PRP(02)ht/01 [intro].
@ And quantum field theory: Demeterfi IJMPA(93) [quantum gravity]; Kazakov NPB(00)ht; Dine ht/00-ln; Calcagni & Modesto PRD(15)-a1404 [non-local quantum gravity, UV completion of 11-dimensional supergravity, and finite and unitary particle-field limit].
@ And quantum gravity: Smolin ht/00 [lqg with supersymmetric and quantum group extension of SU(16)]; > s.a. supergravity.
@ Other versions: Banks et al PRD(97)ht/96 [matrix theory]; Hořava PRD(99)ht/97 [as holographic field theory]; Smolin NPB(00)ht [Chern-Simons like], ht/01 [and exceptional Jordan algebra].
@ Phenomenology: Katz & Vafa NPB(97) [matter]; Bilal hp/98 [review]; Faraggi ht/02-proc; Kane a1601 [M-theory is testable].

Dualities > s.a. bianchi cosmology; Orientifold.
* History: A natural, older idea, which caught on after A Sen's 1994 work; Used by Seiberg & Witten for supersymmetric QCD.
@ I / II: Townsend PW(95)sep; Mukerjee SA(96)jan; Witten PT(97)may.
@ III: Dine ht/96-conf; Vafa ht/97-ln; Olsen PhD(99)ht; Becker et al 07.
@ Intros / reviews: Giveon & Roček ht/94-in; Giveon & Porrati PLB(96)ht, ht/96-proc; Polchinski RMP(96)ht; Schwarz NPPS(97)ht/96; Álvarez-Gaumé & Zamora AIP(98)ht/97; Ferrara ht/97-conf; Hjelmeland & Lindström ht/97-ln; Quevedo NPPS(98)ht/97; Kouneiher ht/99-ln.
@ Scale factor duality: Di Pietro & Demaret IJMPD(99)gq [bianchi]; > s.a. duality.
@ Target space duality: Giveon et al PRP(94)ht; Alvarez NPB(00), NPB(00).
@ T-duality: Katz et al NPB(97)ht/96, Gomez & Silva LNP(00)ht/99 [and supersymmetry]; Borlaf NPB(98) [geometry]; Plauschinn JHEP(14)-a1310; Huggett SHPMP(15)-a1509 [significance, 'phenomenal' or observed space vs target space]; Bugden a1904-PhD [geometric and topological aspects]; > s.a. duality.
@ U-duality: Lavrinenko et al IJMPA(99); Obers & Pioline PRP(99).
@ Phenomenology: Ibáñez hp/98-proc; Fendley ATMP(98)ht [in condensed matter].
@ Related topics: Schwarz ht/98-conf [M-theory and large N limits of boundary gauge theories].

Cosmology > s.a. brane cosmology [including ekpyrotic scenario]; cosmology; FLRW spacetimes; string phenomenology.
@ General references: Billyard et al PRD(00)ht/99; Banks ht/99, ht/99-ln; Easson IJMPA(01)ht/00 [rev]; Cavaglià CQG(01)ht [pre-big bang]; Kallosh ht/02-conf [rev]; Arnowitt et al ht/03-proc [Hořava-Witten]; Grigorian CQG(07)ht/06 [minisuperspace models].
@ Accelerating cosmology: Wohlfarth PLB(03); Nojiri & Odintsov PLB(03)ht; Townsend ht/03-proc; Teo PLB(05)ht/04 [no-go result].

Related Topics > s.a. black holes; models of topology change; Octonions.
@ General references: Aref'eva et al CSF(99)ht/97 [chaos]; Hull JHEP(98) [various spacetime signatures]; Dine & Graesser JHEP(05)ht/04 [CPT, discrete symmetries].
@ Modified versions: Boya MPLA(06)ht/05 [F-theory, (2,10) signature]; Weigand a1806-ln [TASI lectures].

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