Weinberg-Salam Electroweak Theory |

**In General**
> s.a. history of particle physics; particle physics.

* __Idea__: A unified theory
of electroweak interactions, a gauge theory with gauge group *G*
= SU(2) × U(1) (the left-handed and the hypercharge groups).

* __History__: It was proposed
in the 1960s by Weinberg, Salam, and Glashow, but did not attract much
attention until 't Hooft showed that it was renormalizable.

* __Motivation__: It explains the
masslessness of the neutrino and the structure of the weak interactions by
the presence of the gauged chiral symmetry, and incorporates electrodynamics
by using the concept of spontaneously broken symmetry.

* __Symmetry breaking__: The symmetry
group *G* is broken to the electromagnetic U(1) by the Higgs boson.

@ __I, II__: Weinberg SA(74)jul;
Langacker & Mann PT(89)dec;
Aitchison & Hey 12.

@ __General__: Salam & Ward NC(59),
NC(61);
Glashow NP(61);
Salam & Ward PL(64);
Weinberg PRL(67);
Salam in(68);
Paschos 07;
Porsev et al PRL(09)
[precision determination of coupling from parity violation in a Cs atom];
Gegelia a1207 [origin of the theory];
Quigg 13;
Nanni a1803 [Fermi theory of beta decay].

@ __Overviews__: Taylor 76;
Weinberg RMP(80);
Salam RMP(80),
Sci(80)nov;
Glashow RMP(80);
Altarelli et al IJMPA(98) [status];
Gurtu IJMPA(03) [tests];
Wood IJMPA(07);
Iliopoulos a1305-ln.

@ __Quantum theory__: Kraus AP(98)ht/97 [renormalization];
Su ht/00 [Hamiltonian path integral].

@ __Symmetry breaking__:
Dobrescu PLB(99) [from extra dimensions];
Lepora & Kibble JHEP(99) [vacuum geometry];
Arkani-Hamed et al JHEP(02);
Hill & Simmons PRP(03) [strong dynamics];
Quigg CP(07) [and LHC];
Djouadi PRP(08) [Higgs boson];
Zubkov a1004 [and Holst term in gravitational action];
Sannino JPCS(10)-a1010 [rev];
Canarutto IJGMP(11)-a1009 [electroweak geometry and conformal symmetry breaking];
Bhattacharyya Pra(12)-a1201-proc;
Zubkov JHEP(13)
[from gauge theory of the Lorentz group non-minimally coupled to fermions];
Kibble a1502-conf [history];
Bednyakov et al PRL(15)
+ Kusenko Phys(15) [the vacuum is metastable].

**Particle Content** > s.a. electron; hadrons [including quarks];
higgs boson; particle models; particle types [leptons];
solutions of gauge theories [sphalerons].

* __In general__: The fundamental
particles are quarks, leptons and Higgs particles, with forces mediated by
*W*^{ ±}, *Z*^{0}
and *γ* (the *W*s and *Z* get their masses from the Higgs particles);
With a Cartan basis for the Lie algebra of the gauge group *G*, the gauge connection
can be written

*A*_{G}
= *A*_{em} + *A*_{Z}
+ *A*_{W+}
+ *A*_{W−} ,

where the first two generate the Cartan subalgebra.

* __Intermediate vector bosons__:
The particles *W*^{ +},
*W*^{ −} and
*Z*^{0}, mediators for the weak interaction.

* __Z__^{0}:
Mass *m*_{Z} ≈ 90 GeV,
lifetime *τ* ≈ 10^{−25} s.

@ __General references__:
Hung & Quigg Sci(80)dec;
Rubbia RMP(85);
Taubes 86,
Denegri PRP(04) [discovery];
Tenchini & Verzegnassi 07.

@ __ W bosons__: Nikishov JETP(01)ht [in a constant electromagnetic field];
news Phy(12)apr [precision measurement of mass].

**Other References**
> s.a. atomic physics; lattice gauge theories.

@ __Modified versions__: McCorkle ht/96 [from spacetime theory of matter];
Finkelstein IJMPA(05)ht/04 [*q*-deformed];
Loewe et al PLB(05)hp/04 [finite *T* and density];
Moffat & Toth a0906-conf [without a Higgs particle];
Ilderton et al JPA(10)
[in terms of SU(2) gauge-invariant variables, and Higgs as conformal metric];
Kober IJMPA(11) [with a minimal length];
Karan a1701 [without an SU(2) doublet];
> s.a. supersymmetry phenomenology;
variation of constants.

@ __In curved spacetime__: Pervushin & Smirichinski gq/97 [conformally invariant, and general relativity];
Lecian & Montani IJMPD(06)gq [geometrization, Riemann-Cartan];
Bentivegna et al a1708 [impact of new physics];
> s.a. relativistic cosmological models [coupled to gravity].

@ __Related topics__: news pw(05)jul [decrease with distance];
> s.a. astronomical objects [electroweak stars];
brans-dicke theory; Quantions.

> __And unification of interactions__:
see GUTS [with strong interactions]; unified
theories [with gravity].

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