Higgs Mechanism and Higgs Bosons |

**Higgs Mechanism** > s.a. symmetry breaking.

* __Idea__: A mechanism by which
one can give a mass to the otherwise massless Goldstone bosons arising from
the spontaneous breaking of some symmetry group; Analogous to the formation
of Cooper pairs in a superconductor, giving mass to the photon (it is not a
fundamental field, and disappears above *T*_{0}).

* __Gravitational version__:
Spacetime arises due to the dynamical breaking of diffeomorphism invariance in
the early universe, with the connection and metric as Goldstone/Higgs bosons.

@ __General references__: Nambu & Jona-Lasinio PRL(61) [precursor work];
Higgs PL(64),
PRL(64);
Klein & Lee PRL(64);
Englert & Brout PRL(64);
Higgs PR(66);
Sardanashvily IJGMP(06) [geometry];
Smeenk PhSc(06)dec [gauge-invariant content];
Lyre a0806 [criticism];
news nat(10)aug [split over credit for theorists];
Bernstein AJP(11)jan;
Struyve SHPMP(11) [gauge-invariant accounts];
Carroll 12;
Baggott 12;
Organtini EJP(12) [undergraduate introduction];
news bbc(13)apr [call to rename the particle];
Friedrich et al Synth(14)-a1302 [on the criticism that the Higgs mechanism is ad hoc];
Sardanashvily & Kurov a1312 [matter fields, geometric];
Mannheim PPNP(17)-a1610 [and implications].

@ __Alternatives__: Biswas a0909;
Calmet IJMPA(11);
Alexandre & Mavromatos PRD(11) [Lorentz-violating];
> s.a. kaluza-klein theory.

@ __Gravitational version__: Percacci NPB(91)-a0712;
Kakushadze & Langfelder MPLA(00)ht;
Consoli hp/01 [Newtonian gravity from Higgs field],
hp/02 [general relativity from Higgs condensate];
Kirsch PRD(05)ht;
Leclerc AP(06) [gauge theory of gravity];
Boulanger & Kirsch PRD(06)ht/06;
Arkani-Hamed et al JHEP(07) [low-energy dynamics];
't Hooft a0708 [unitarity, and QCD];
Kakushadze IJMPA(08)-a0709 [and massive gravity],
IJGMP(08) [massless limit];
Oda a0709 [with Polyakov-type scalar field action];
Pirinççioğlu GRG(12)-a0908;
Chamseddine & Mukhanov JHEP(10)-a1002;
Oda a1003,
PLB(10);
Klusoň CQG(11)-a1005 [canonical description];
Berezhiani & Mirbabayi PRD(11)-a1010 [unitarity check];
Arraut EPL(15)-a1509 [as a Vainshtein mechanism];
Alexander et al CQG(16)-a1602;
Bonifacio et al PRD(19)-a1903 [constraints];
> s.a. Induced Gravity; massive gravity.

@ __Other variations__:
Flachi & Toms PLB(00) [in Randall-Sundrum];
Petriello NPB(01)ht [non-commutative];
Slavnov TMP(06) [and extra dimensions];
Nakanishi PTP(07)-a0704 [unphysical, and Lorentz invariance violation];
Porto & Zee PLB(08)-a0712 [a private Higgs field for each fermion];
Wanng a0801;
Devastato et al FdP(14)-a1404-proc [in non-commutative geometry];
Modesto a2103 [in non-local field theory];
> s.a. kaluza-klein models.

@ __Related topics__: Gassner & Lesch IJTP(08)-ap/06 [bounds on time variation of expectation value];
Donoghue et al PRD(10)-a0903 [anthropic constraints on the vacuum expectation value];
Dütsch a1502-proc
[compatibility with renormalization group flow].

**Higgs Bosons**
> s.a. electroweak theory; Higgsplosion.

* __Idea__: The particles responsible,
through the Higgs mechanism, for giving mass to quarks and intermediate bosons in
the Weinberg-Salam electroweak theory, breaking the symmetry with a non-zero vacuum
expectation value.

* __Remark__: There should be at least
4 Higgs bosons (a complex doublet), but 3 show up only as the longitudinal modes of
the *W*s and *Z*^{0}; In the MSSM, one
needs two complex doublets, and there may be extra fields, such as a Higgs singlet.

* __1997__: According to Gordon Kane
(University of Michigan), high-precision experiments at LEP, Fermilab, and SLAC now
support the claim, for the first time with any statistical weight, that the Higgs
does exist; The supersymmetry model [@ news
pn(96)apr]
of particle interactions predicts that the Higgs mass should be less than about 150 GeV;
LEP could by 1999 have spotted the Higgs if its mass were no more than 95 GeV; Fermilab
(with its new much more intense beams) could probe for a Higgs mass up to 130 GeV by
2002; The LHC at CERN could extend the range up to 150 GeV by 2010.

* __1999__: Rumors of detection by OPAL
at LEP, with *m*_{H} ~ 91 GeV.

* __2000__: More rumors of detection at
LEP, with *m*_{H} ~ 115 GeV;
CERN delays LEP shutdown by a month; LEP data eventually show that
*m*_{H} > 114 GeV.

* __2001__: Fermilab's Tevatron
resumes operations in March for five years, and can search up to 180 GeV.

* __2004__: Estimated 115 GeV
< *m*_{H} < 251 GeV,
with best fit to top data from D0 at tevatron at 117 GeV; Tevatron Run II
has a chance of finding it, otherwise LHC in 2007.

* __2009__: Estimated 114 GeV
< *m*_{H} < 185 GeV,
from LEP data and theoretical analysis, respectively; Fermilab's CDF and
D0 experiments exclude the region 156–177 GeV.

* __2011__: Using CMS and ATLAS
results, the focus now is on the mass range between 115.5 and 127 GeV; December
hints from LHC at 125-126 GeV?

* __2012__: The standard model is
viable iff the standard-model Higgs boson has *m* between 114 and 147 GeV;
Reported discovery at 125 GeV, with *s* = 0 or 2.

* __2013__: Nobel prize to P Higgs
and F Englert for their work leading to the discovery of the Higgs boson.

* __2014__: Improved data analysis
from LHC collaborations gives *m*_{H}
= 125.36 ± 0.37 (statistical) ± 0.18 (systematic) GeV.

* __2015__: Combined analyses from
different teams yield a Higgs boson mass of 125.09 ± 0.24 GeV, spin *s* = 0.

@ __General references__: Veltman SA(86)nov;
Aitchison PW(89)jul;
L3 collaboration, ALEPH collab PLB(00) [discovery?];
Hanson Phy(09) [review];
Gunion IJMPA(10) [motivation];
Schlatter & Zerwas EPJH(12)-a1112 [review];
Haber Phy(12) [status];
news symm(12)mar [10 facts];
news ns(12)mar [naming issue];
blog atl(12)jul [why some physicists doubt the existence of the Higgs boson];
Carmi et al JHEP(12)-a1207 [discovery, status report];
Close CP(12) [context and implications];
news ng(13)mar [confirmation];
Falkowski et al JHEP(13)-a1303 [update];
Lykken & Spiropulu PT(13)dec [overview, implications];
Quigg Phy(15) [more precise mass, and consequences];
news sn(16)aug [mode details].

@ __History__: Ellis et al a1201;
Allen JMO(14)-a1306,
PS(14) [and prospects for new physics];
Moffat 14;
Barth et al a1402 [bibliometric perspective];
Wu MPLA(14)-a1403,
IJMPA(14)-a1410;
Wells a1609 [theoretical physics ecosystem behind the discovery].

@ __Searches, experiments__: Collins SA(01)feb [CERN shutdown];
LEP collaborations PLB(03) [results];
Kane SA(05)jul [search];
Parker pw(06)oct,
news pn(08)apr,
news indep(08)apr [search with LHC];
He et al PRL(07),
news pw(07)mar [hints at Fermilab?];
Jakobs & Schumacher IJMPA(08) [prospects at LHC];
CDF & D0 a0903-conf
and PT(09)apr;
Jackson et al JCAP(10)-a0912 [production in dark-matter annihilations];
Aaltonen et CDF + D0 PRL(10)
+ Mönig Phy(10)
[Fermilab Tevatron data exclude the mass range 162–166 GeV];
news cbc(11)apr,
tg(11)may [discovery rumors quelled];
CDF & D0 collaborations a1107-conf
+ news et(11)aug [motivation and status],
bbc(11)aug,
guardian(11)aug [signals fade];
news ns(11)aug [don't panic yet];
news nyt(11)dec,
bbc(11)dec,
nyt(12)mar [glimpse];
news sp(12)jul,
pw(12)jul [maybe!];
news dj(12)jul [maybe not];
ATLAS Collaboration PLB(12)-a1207,
CMS Collaboration PLB(12)-a1207 [new *s* ≠ 1 boson with *M* = 125 GeV];
news bbc(12)aug,
SA(12)sep [evidence stronger];
Green IJMPA(13) [search and discovery];
news ibt(14)nov [was the discovered particle a techni-higgs?].

@ __Other experiments__:
news ns(12)nov [no hints at new physics beyond standard model Higgs];
Sirunyan et CMS PRL(18) [decay to a pair of bottom quarks seen].

@ __Condensed-matter analogs__:
San-Jose et al PRL(11)
+ news pw(11)feb [clues from ripples on a sheet of graphene];
news at(12)jul [in an optical lattice of ultracold rubidium atoms].

@ __Coupling to gravity__: Atkins & Calmet PRL(13)-a1211 [non-minimal];
Fuzfa et al PRL(13)-a1305,
Schlögel et al PRD(14)-a1405
[Higgs monopoles, spherically symmetric particlelike solutions];
Czerwińska et al a1512-MG14 [and the stability of the Higgs sector].

@ __Astrophysics and cosmology__: Kujat & Scherrer PRD(00)ap/99 [and the cmb];
Popa a0910 [bounds on mass from astrophysics and cosmology];
Stojković IJMPD(13)-a1305-GRF [implications];
Huang IJMPA(14) [dark energy and dark matter];
Moss a1507,
Horn a2007 [and cosmology];
> s.a. inflationary scenarios.

@ __Related topics__:
Miller et al PLB(01) [measuring the spin];
Nayak & Smith PRD(06)hp [from black holes at the LHC];
Faddeev ch(09)-a0811-conf [alternative interpretation];
Canarutto AHP(14)-a1407 [as a member of a larger family];
> s.a. branes; lorentz
violation; mass;
matter [matter-antimatter asymmetry].

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