In General > s.a. Newton's Laws; mach's principle; mass.
* Idea: The resistance an object opposes to acceleration.
* History: The concept was first understood by Galileo, and formalized in Newton's first law of dynamics; D'Alembert [@ Traité de dynamique, p3] argued that Newton's first law can be established without the need for observation or experiment.
* Limits on anisotropy: Experiments around 1960 by Hughes and by Drever; The relative size of the effect is < 10−18.
> Related topics: see Moment of Inertia; vacuum.

Origin > s.a. mass.
* Idea: Two possibilities are that inertia arises as a result of gravitational interactions, or from the interaction of material particles with local fluctuations of the quantum vacuum (Haisch & Rueda).
@ Quantum fluctuations: Smolin CQG(86) [and quantum gravity]; Mashhoon FPL(93); Jaekel & Reynaud JdP(93)qp/01 [inertia of Casimir energy], in(97)qp/95; Milgrom PLA(99)ap/98 [and MOND]; Dobyns et al FP(00); Jaekel & Reynaud in(11)-a0812; Pollock FP(12).
@ Electromagnetic: Haisch et al phy/98-conf; Rueda & Haisch PLA(98)phy, FP(98)phy; Haisch & Rueda AIP(99)gq, PLA(00)gq/99, in(98)gq/99; Haisch et al AIP(03)gq/02; Woodward & Mahood FP(99), Woodward FP(01) [untenable]; Martins & Pinheiro IJTP(08); Lyle 10 [and self-force, r GRG(12)].
@ Mach's principle: Mashhoon PLA(88); Graneau & Graneau GRG(03) [Newton-Mach particle interactions]; Woodward FP(04) [proposed test]; Sultana & Kazanas IJMPD(11)-a1104 [and Sciama's law of inertial induction, in FLRW spacetimes]; Mashhoon a1509-fs; Putz a1808.
@ Entropic formulation: Santos & Vancea MPLA(12)-a1002; Bagchi & Fring IJMPB(19)-a1709 [quantum and non-commutative corrections]; > s.a. entropic gravity.
@ Related topics: Mashhoon & Kaiser PhyB(06)qp/05 [and intrinsic spin]; Masreliez PS(07) [acceleration-dependent metric?]; Moffat & Toth MNRAS(09)-a0710 [modified gravity and test-particle motion]; Lee FP(12)-a1003 [holography and dragging of the Rindler horizon]; Tsarouchas a1703.

References > s.a. anomalous acceleration / models of spacetime.
@ General: Sciama MRAS(53), SA(57); Barbour BJPS(82); Rosu G&C(99)gq/94.
@ And gravitation: Ciufolini & Wheeler 95; Giné IJTP(11); Shuler PE(11).
@ Covariant definition: Abramowicz in(93); Abramowicz et al CQG(93); Sonego & Massar CQG(96).
@ Limits on anisotropy: Cocconi & Salpeter NC(58), PRL(60); Hughes et al PRL(60); Sherwin et al PRL(60).
@ Other: Rohrlich PRD(01) [and self-interaction]; Caplan & Heald AJP(04)jul [re class demonstration]; Afriat & Caccese SHPMP(10)-a0804; Ter-Kazarian ASS(10)-a1001 [and field theory of deformations]; Smerlak EPJP(12)-a1202 [the inertia of heat].
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

Inertial Frame and Related Concepts > s.a. equivalence principle / force / reference frame.
* Idea: An ideal element of Newtonian physics, identified by the validity of Newton's laws in it.
@ References: Barbour 89; DiSalle in(02); Saunders PhSc-a1609 [and Newton's Principia].

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