Cosmic Microwave Background Polarization  

In General > s.a. observational cosmology [parameters]; dark matter.
* Values:
* Linear polarization: It is produced by Compton scattering.
* Circular polarization: It is produced during the propagation of polarized cmb photons through regions of the large-scale structure containing magnetized relativistic plasma, such as galaxy clusters.
* Significance: Related to anisotropy, but it is a signature of the motion of the primordial seeds that led to the large-scale structure observed today, and gives a different combination of information on physical parameters, including the presence of gravitational waves.
@ Reviews: Challinor LNP(04)ap/05; Hedman AS(05)may; Bartlett JPCS(06)ap; Balbi et al ap/06-ch; Dodelson et al a0902-rp.
@ General references: Kamionkowski et al PRD(97) [stats]; Guzik et al PRD(00)ap/99; Bunn PRD(02)ap/01 [detectability]; Balbi et al AIP(02)ap/01; Cooray PRD(02)ap [lensing]; Cabella & Kamionkowski ap/04-ln [theory]; Abramo & Xavier PRD(07)ap/06 [and primordial matter distribution]; Galli et al PRD(14)-a1403 [polarization constrains cosmological parameters better than temperature].
@ And topological defects: Gangui AIP(03)ap; Lizarraga et al PRL(14)-a1403, Moss & Pogosian PRL(14) [BICEP2 B-mode signal].
@ B-modes: Krauss & Wilczek PRD(14)-a1404 [as evidence for quantum gravity]; Dolgov a1410-conf [and gravitational waves].
@ Circular polarization: Cooray et al PLB(03)ap/02 [mechanism]; Zarei et al PRD(10)-a0912.
@ Cosmological birefringence: Yadav et al PRD(12); Minami & Komatsu PRL(20).

* 2002: Linear polarization ≈ 10−6 (DASI); Characterized by Stokes parameters S0 or I = (Tx + Ty)/2, S1 or Q = (TxTy)/2, S2 or U, and S2 or S3 or U.
* 2014: Announcement by BICEP Collaboration of the detection of B modes, presumably produced by gravitational waves generated by quantum fluctuations during inflation.
* BICEP: (Background Imaging of Cosmic Extragalactic Polarization): An experiment that took data at the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station from 2010 to 2012, designed to measure the polarization of the cosmic microwave background; > see website.
* Other experiments: Planck spacecraft, Atacama B-mode Search.
@ News: pw(02)sep [DASI announcement of first detection]; pw(06)may [WMAP data]; pw(13)jul [observation by South Pole Telescope]; pw(14)mar, sci(14)mar [announcement of BICEP results], pw(14)mar [Turok urges caution], ns(14)may, sn(14)may [recent developments].
@ References: Zaldarriaga & Seljak PRD(97) [analysis]; Kovac et al Nat(02)dec-ap; Gangui Sci(03)feb-ap; Page et al ApJ(07)ap/06 [WMAP 3-year data]; Ralston & Jain ap/06 [classification of observables]; Samtleben et QUIET NCB(07)-a0802-proc; Inflation Working Group AIP(09)-a0811-rp [CBMPol mission study]; Hanson et al PRL(13) + Komatsu Phy(13) [from gravitational lensing, South Pole Telescope]; Williams PhD-a1311 [B-Machine telescope]; Hazumi et al SPIE-a2101 [LiteBIRD space mission].
@ BICEP2: Ade et BICEP2 PRL(14)-a1403 + Krauss Phy(14) [results]; Dent et al PLB(14)-a1403 [implications]; Liu et al ApJ(14)-a1404 [galactic radio loop foreground?]; Audren et al a1405 [BICEP2 and Planck are not in tension]; Martin et al PRD(14)-a1405 [and Planck, implications for inflation]; Flauger et al JCAP(14)-a1405 [foreground emission]; news space(14)jun [debate]; Chisari et al PRD(14)-a1406 [and weak lensing surveys]; Cai & Wang PLB(14) [and non-commutative phase space]; Ade et BICEP2/Keck & Planck Collaborations PRL(15) + Halverson Phy(15) [interstellar dust contamination].
@ BICEP3: Ahmed et al SPIE(14)-a1407-proc; Wu et al JLTP(15)-a1601 [performance]; news pt(19)mar, Phys(20)oct [updates].

Related Topics > s.a. cmb anisotropy [Cold Spot]; gravitons; parity [violation].
@ And gravitational waves: Kesden et al PRL(02)ap; Zhang et al PRD(06)ap/05; Keating et al IJMPA(06)ap; Baskaran et al PRD(06)gq; Hogan pw(07)may; Grishchuk a0707-ln; Krauss & Wilczek PRD(14)-a1309 + news nat(13)sep [polarization due to a long-wavelength stochastic background as evidence for the quantization of gravity]; Kamionkowski & Kovetz PRL(14) [identifying possible contaminations from galactic dust].
@ Faraday rotation: Scóccola et al PRD(04)ap; Kosowsky et al PRD(05) [stochastic B]; Ni PTPS(08)-a0712-conf; di Serego Alighieri a1507-proc, a1603-proc [current problems and future prospects for cosmic polarization rotation measurements].
@ Galactic foregrounds: Wibig & Wolfendale MNRAS(15)-a1507 [cosmic-ray contribution]; Errard et al JCAP(16)-a1509.
@ In modified gravity theories: Nakashima & Kobayashi a1012-proc [Einstein-Aether theory]; Batebi et al a1605 [non-commutative spacetime]; > s.a. einstein-æther theory.
@ Other topics: Rocher et al JCAP(07) [and inflation]; Frommert & Enßlin MNRAS(10)-a0908 [search for "axis of evil"]; Danos et al PRD(10)-a1003 [cosmic-string wakes]; Dai PRL(14), Di Dio et al PRD(19)-a1905 [weak lensing corrections]

cmb polarization
Image: ESA/Planck Collaboration (2018)

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