Neutrinos – Search, Detection and Applications  

In General > s.a. gravitational-wave detection; solar planets; types of neutrinos [geoneutrinos].
* Detection: 2010, Only two astrophysical sources have actually been seen so far, the Sun and SN1987A.
* Motivation: Neutrinos are a unique source of information on deep processes inside stars and galaxies; Neutrinos are not affected by processes that stop other particles, and in their spectrum there are no "walls" (like the electromagnetic ones at about 109 eV from γs producing e+e pairs off the cmb, and a similar one for cosmic-ray p + γ into hadrons at about 5 × 1019 eV).
* Method: Telescopes based on Cerenkov radiation from events in the detector mass; Need huge detectors (low event rates), located deep below the surface (large backgrounds); Use mines, ocean water, antarctic ice; The challenge is to lower the detection threshold below 1019 eV.
* Experiments: 1999, AMANDA (Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array), NESTOR, Baikal, ANTARES, Super-Kamiokande; NuBe (Neutrino Burster Experiment); IceCube; 2004, ANITA-lite prototype flight; 2016, SHiP, an experiment at SPS to search for sterile neutrinos to be built by 2026.
@ Reviews: Grupen ap/96-conf; Protheroe EPN-ap/99; Bahcall & Davis PASP(00)ap/99 [history]; Halzen NPPS(04)ap; news sr(06)nov [Antarctic]; Becker JPCS(08)-a0811; Montaruli NPPS(09)-a0901; Halzen a0911-conf; Anchordoqui & Montaruli ARNPS(10)-a0912; Gelmini et al SA(10)may [neutrino astronomy]; Kappes a1110-proc; Karle NPPS(13)-a1210 [future experiments]; Kurahashi et IceCube a1402-proc.
@ Diffuse flux: Kowalski JCAP(05)ap; Kravchenko et al PRD(06) [RICE]; Abbasi et IceCube PRD(11).
@ Experiments: Letessier-Selvon NPPS(03)ap/02 [Pierre Auger]; Spiering PS(05)ap-in [Amanda, Baikal, IceCube]; Chen et SNO NPPS(05); Inoue et KamLAND NPPS(05); Wischnewski et al IJMPA(05)ap-proc [Baikal]; Wischnewski a0710-conf, a0710-conf [Baikal]; news pw(14)mar [future JUNO (Jiangmen Underground Neutrino Observatory) detector]; news pw(16)feb [future SHiP (Search for Hidden Particles) SPS experiment approved].
@ Ice detectors: Hulth et IceCube ap/06-conf [AMANDA to IceCube]; Barwick et al PRL(06) [flux results from ANITA-lite]; Barwick JPCS(07)ap/06 [ARIANNA].
@ Mediterranean underwater detectors: Amore et al IJMPA(07) [NEMO project]; Cuoco et al JCAP(07)ap/06 [km3 detector]; Hernández-Rey JPCS(09)-a0904; Margiotta et KM3NeT NIMA(14)-a1408 [KM3NeT, under construction].
@ Acoustic detection: Nahnhauer NIMA(11)-a1010-proc; Vandenbroucke PhD(09)-a1201.
> Detectors / experiments: see AMANDA; ANTARES; IceCube; Super-Kamiokande.

Solar Neutrinos > s.a. neutrino mixing; solar system [helioseismology].
* Problem: Only about 1/3 of the expected solar neutrinos are detected; It was solved by neutrino oscillations, as confirmed in 2002.
* Experiments: (1) R Davis et al since the 1960s monitor the amount of Ar in C2Cl4; Sensitive only to left-handed νes; (2) Kamiokande II since 1987, higher threshold, neutrinos from the same reaction, can see other flavors; (3) SAGE collaboration at Baksan, with Ga \(\mapsto\) Ge; (4) Gallex collaboration at Gran Sasso, start end of 1990; (5) Sudbury, ON.
* Oscillations: The effective m depends on matter density, and in the Sun's core the masses are much higher than usual, especially for νes which interact more with matter; Mostly νes are produced, but their mass decreases traveling outwards, and, since the graphs of mass vs density for the two νs cannot cross (second-order perturbation theory), most of the neutrinos come out as νμs, which are not seen by the ordinary experiments.
@ Status, reviews: Bahcall SA(69)may; Pinch 86 [constructivist history]; Wolfenstein & Beier PT(89)jul; Schwarzschild PT(90)oct; Sciama Nat(90)dec, PRL(90); Bahcall SA(90)may, in(98)ap/97-ln, he/00-conf; Parke PRL(95); Dar & Shaviv PRP(99)ap/98; Fiorentini & Ricci ap/98-proc; Pennicott pw(01)jul [solution]; Miramonti & Reseghetti RNC(02); Smy MPLA(02); Bahcall IJMPA(02); McDonald et al SA(03)apr [solution]; Bahcall & Pinsonneault PRL(04)ap; Bahcall phy/04-in, in(05)phy/04 [I], et al JHEP(04)hp; Nakahata & Super-K NPPS(05); Turck-Chièze NPPS(05); Waxman Sci(07)ap/06; Peña-Garay & Serenelli a0811 [and solar composition problem]; Chavarria a1201-proc; Antonelli et al AHEP-a1208; Haxton et al a1208 [status and prospects]; Antonelli & Miramonti a1311-conf.
@ Oscillations: Mikheyev & Smirnov SJNP(85); Bethe PRL(86); Ahmed et SNO PRL(04)ne/02, ne/03-proc [evidence].
@ Related topics: Bellini et al PRL(12) + news pw(12)feb [neutrinos from solar proton-electron-proton fusion reactions].

Applications of Neutrinos
@ References: Sugawara et al hp/03 [use to destroy nuclear weapons?]; Huber PLB(10), news PhysOrg(12)mar [communication]; news wvtf(14)aug [monitoring nuclear reactors].

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