Friction  

In General > s.a. Stokes' Law.
* Idea: The force resisting relative motion between solid surfaces or fluid layers sliding against each other.
* History: In the 1700s, Amontons and Coulomb found that the force needed to push an object across a surface depends on its mass, but not on the area of the contact surface (a relationship embodied in the first of Guillaume Amontons's two laws of friction); Microscopic 'asperities' on the surfaces have traditionally been blamed for this; In fact, lateral friction or retention force is proportional to the true contact area; In 2001, Gerde & Marder proposed a 'micro-crack' theory.
* Question: What are the relative contributions of electrons and phonons to friction? [@ see Phy(10)].
@ General references: Krim SA(96)oct; Hähner & Spencer PT(98)sep [David Tabor and "tribology"]; Barrena et al PRL(99) + pn(99)mar [origin]; Gerde & Marder Nat(01)sep + pw(01)sep [new theory]; Krim AJP(02)sep [microscopic and macroscopic, RL]; Barnett & Cresser PRA(05) [Markovian quantum theory]; Besson et al AJP(07)dec [experiments and models]; Ferrari & Gruber EJP(10) [from mechanics to thermodynamics]; Ben-David & Fineberg PRL(11) + news sn(11)jun [experiments and limitations of models]; Fröhlich et al JMP(11), CMP(12) [Hamiltonian models]; Ichinose a1404-conf [non-equilibrium statistical approach].
@ Books: Persson 00 [sliding, 1st ed r PT(99)jan]; Mate 07 [r JPA(08)]; Gnecco & Meyer 15.
@ Related topics: Salazar et al PhysEd(90) [in the direction of the center of mass motion]; Johansen & Sornette PRL(99) + pn(99)jun [and sound]; Raine EJP(05) [fluctuations and dissipation]; Drummond PRL(12) + news Phy(12)oct [electric fields can modify frictional force between surfaces]; > s.a. dissipation.
> Online resources: see Wikipedia pages on Friction and Tribology.

Applications / Examples > s.a. gravitomagnetism [gravitomagnetic dynamical friction]
@ Air drag / resistance: Deakin & Troup AJP(98)jan [projectile motion]; Graney a1205 [Riccioli's work]; > s.a. Projectile Motion.
@ At the atomic scale: Ringlein & Robbins AJP(04)jul [atomic origins]; Barton NJP(10), NJP(11) [model with van der Waals force between two atoms]; Sivebaek et al PRL(12) [frictional properties of lubricants on molecular length scales]; Vanossi et al RMP(13) [microscopic models, rev]; Egberts & Carpick Phy(14).
@ Nanoscale particles / devices: Krim pw(05)feb; news pw(06)jul [overcoming friction]; Dietzel et al PRL(13) ["structural lubricity" and ultralow friction].
@ Mesoscale: Peters CP(04); Peters phy/06 [suggestion of 11-pJ quantum of energy].
@ Other examples: Scherge & Gorb 01 [tribology in biology]; Cross AJP(02)nov [bouncing ball], AJP(05)sep [increase with speed]; Tadmor PRL(09) [more general behavior, liquid drop and substrate]; Liu et al PRL(12) [microscale superlubricity in graphite]; news pw(10)oct [negative friction with an atomic-force-microscope tip on a graphite surface]; Ehlinger et al PRL(13) ["ball bearings" for liquid-liquid interfaces]; news tum(13)may [new kind of friction discovered, "desorption stick"].

Quantum Friction
* Idea: There are claims that electromagnetic vacuum fluctuations give rise to a Casimir-like non-contact "quantum friction" between moving plates, whose magnitude is proportional to the particle's velocity, but the claims have been disputed by other authors.
@ General references: Philbin & Leonhardt NJP(09)-a0810 [no]; Pendry NJP(10) [refute argument against]; Leonhardt NJP(10)-a1003 [reply]; Pendry NJP(10); Dalvit et al LNP(11)-a1006 [fluctuations, dissipation and friction]; Silveirinha NJP(14)-a1307; Intravaia et al PRA(14) [and fluctuation theorems]; Pieplow & Henkel JPCM(15)-a1402 [Čerenkov friction]; Høye & Brevik EPJD(14)-a1403, JPCM(15)-a1409 [at zero and non-zero T]; Zhdanov a1612 [environment engineering perspectives]; > s.a. casimir effect.
@ Models, approaches: Nesterenko & Nesterenko JETPL(14)-a1403 [macroscopic approach]; Bondar et al JPCL(16)-a1412 [progress towards a universal valid Lindbladian model]; Farías et al PRD(15)-a1412 [functional approach]; Sonnleitner et al PRL(17)-a1610 [friction on a moving excited two-level atom].
@ Applications, examples: Dupays et al a1010 [and neutron-star evolution]; Manjavacas & García de Abajo PRA(10) + news ns(11)feb [on a spinning particle]; Tsekov ChPL(12)-a1203 [for a light particle in a heavy classical gas]; Farias et al PRD(17)-a1612 [between graphene sheets].


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