Solid Matter  

In General > s.a. Continuous Media; crystals; Disordered Systems; Extended Objects; molecular physics; superconductivity.
* Idea: The field studies materials, but it has also taken on a more and more active role, by manufacturing new materials with desired combinations of properties such as thermal and electric conductivity, density, etc.
@ Texts: Peierls 74; Ashcroft & Mermin 76; Anderson 84; Blakemore 85; Rosenberg 88; Kittel 95; Anderson 97 [lectures]; Rogalski & Palmer 00; Feng & Jin 05; Fischer-Cripps 07 [materials, pedagogical]; Mihály & Martin 09, Han 11 [problems and solutions]; Quinn & Yi 09; Economou 10; Patterson & Bailey 10; Harrison 10; Phillips 12 [advanced, e1r PT(03)jun, r CP(12)#5]; Grosso & Parravicini 14; Huebener 15; Snoke 20.
@ Texts, II: Holgate 09; Simon 12; Dresselhaus et al 18.
@ Quantum solids: Polturak & Gov CP(03); Kantorovich 04; Khomskii 10 [r CP(12)]; Han 12 [r CP(13)]; > s.a. many-body quantum systems.
@ Mechanics of solids: Bower 10; Rees 16.
@ Materials, objects: Eberhart SA(99)oct [breaking vs bending]; Gay & Leibler PRL(99), PT(99)nov [sticky materials]; Sparavigna a1110 [early use of concrete]; Ghosh 16 [devices and nanoelectronics].
@ Electronic structure: Harrison 80, 04; Fulde 12 [correlated electons]; > s.a. electrons.
@ Related topics: Di Bartolo 10, Fox 10 [optical properties]; Sausset et al JSP(10) [solidity as time-scale-dependent and flow]; Sirdeshmukh et al 11 [atomistic properties]; in Pearson AdP(14)-a1403 [relativistic theory of solids]; Di Bartolo & Powell 14 [lattice structure and atomic vibrations].
> Properties: see defects; Elasticity; Plasticity; specific heat; Tensile Strength.
> Related phenomena: see heat [thermal expansion]; Order; Transport.

Amorphous Solid Matter > s.a. condensed matter.
* Idea and issue: Amorphous solids are disordered assemblies of atoms or larger particles that have a rigid structure; Physicists have long been interested in finding a theory that predicts the materials' behavior, for example how they transmit stress, in terms of their microstructure in a unified way; Unlike crystalline solids, however, their rigidity is not associated with a thermodynamically stable, stress-free microstructure, so researchers are developing novel theoretical approaches.
* Glass: Regular glass is made with molten sand, limestone, and soda ash; In general, some liquids become glassy and others ordered when colled, the result depending to a large extent on the cooling process, and also on the "fragility" of the liquid, \(m:= \partial\eta/\partial(T_g/T)|_T = T_g\), where \(\eta\) is viscosity, related to Poisson's ratio of bulk to shear modulus.
* Pyrex: Much stronger glass, made by adding boron silicate; Discovered in the 1880s, later marketed by Corning.
* Other examples: Less rigid materials, such as compacted sand, and even yogurt or chocolate mousse.
* Glass transition: The phase transition in an amorphous material between their liquid and solid phases.
@ Amorphous solids: Zallen 98; Alexander PRP(98); Parisi & Zamponi RMP(10) [hard-sphere glasses and jamming]; Binder & Kob 11 [statistical mechanics]; Cancès & Lahbabi JMPA-a1203 [mean-field models]; DeGiuli PRL(18), PRE(18), Del Gado Phy(18) [towards a unified approach].
@ Glass: Angell Sci(95)mar [fragility of liquids]; Zanotto AJP(98)may, Zanotto & Gupta AJP(99)mar [(non)flowing]; Ellis 98; Leuzzi & Nieuwenhuizen 07 [thermodynamics, r JSP(08)dec]; Binder & Kob 11 [statistical mechanics]; Krieger Phy(12) [metallic glass]; Weingartner et al a1512 [universality of glass transition]; Berthier & Ediger PT(16)jan; focus Phys(19) [behavior of particles of different sizes]; Parisi et al 20; > s.a. phase transitions; Topological Glass.
@ Glass transition: Donth 01 [r PT(02)dec]; Kitamura PRP(03); Tokuyama PhyA(10) [slow dynamics]; Mosayebi et al PRL(10) [structural signature, critical length scale]; Vasin et al TMP(10) [functional-integral approach]; Berthier & Biroli RMP(11); Edmond et al PNAS(12) + news emory(12)oct [particle dynamics]; Vasin TMP(13) [gauge theory]; Biroli & Bouchaud Phy(13) [viscosity and the cooperative nature of the dynamics]; > s.a. Wikipedia page.
> Online resources: see UCSB page; Wikipedia page.

Other Types of Solid Matter > s.a. condensed matter [nanoparticles]; ice; Insulators; matter; Metals.
* Molecular solids: Molecules rather than atoms make up the lattice; Examples are cubane C8H8, and solid C60.
@ Other types: Büttiker & Thomas SM(98)qp/97 [evanescent media]; Barnett & Madan pw(98)jan [superhard lattices]; Snijders et al PRL(06) + pn(06)feb [atom wires]; news sp(12)jul [aerographite as the lightest known material, with density 0.2 mg/cc]; Long et al PRL(13) + news hp(13)aug [q-glass, a possible new type of solid].
> Related topics: see bose-einstein condensates.

* Idea: Solid materials in which crystalline order and Bose condensation coexist, so a fraction of the solid decouples from the rest and flows effortlessly through the material as if it were not there.
* History: They were first predicted in 1969 by Russian theorists Alexander Andreev and Ilya Liftshitz, and by Geoffrey Chester at Cornell; For decades, experiments (by Dennis Greywall and by David Bishop et al, for example, using an idea by Anthony Leggett based on torsional oscillators) gave negative results; The first report of an observation was by Kim & Chan in 2004 for ultracold 4He; Other experiments replicated the results, but with widely varying percentages of decoupled mass, and there were critics of the supersolid interpretation (dislocations or structural effects could be responsible for the observed effects); 2007, Their behavior is strongly dependent on the amount of crystal disorder in the sample; Simulations indicate it is due to screw dislocations; Mounting evidence from phase transition signature in specific heat; 2012, After a redesigned experiment, the authors of 2004 article retract the supersolid interpretation.
@ News articles: news psu(04)jan, pw(04)jan; Chalmers pw(07)may [rev]; news pw(07)may [role of disorder]; news pw(07)oct [evidence]; news ns(10)jun; news ns(10)nov [evidence for supersolid]; news R&D(12)feb [neutron scattering experiments]; news sn(16)nov [in Bose-Einstein condensates]; news gm(17)mar; Donner Phys(19) [gases of magnetic atoms]; Natale et al PRL(19) [in BECs, experiment].
@ References: Kim & Chan Sci(04) + news pw(04)aug, PT(04)nov [supersolid 4He]; Rittner & Reppy PRL(06) + Todoshchenko et al PRL(06) + pw(06)nov [controversy]; Diallo et al PRL(07) + pw(07)may [doubts]; Clark et al PRL(07)-a0706 + pw(07)jun [it does not require superfluid grain boundaries]; Boninsegni et al PRL(07) + pw(07)jul [screw dislocations]; Biroli et al PRB(08) + Nussinov Phy(08) [superglass]; Syshchenko et al PRL(10) + Balibar Phy(10) [evidence of crossover, rather than true phase transition]; Reppy PRL(10) + Beamish Phy(10) [behavior may be non-superfluid]; Kuklov et al Phy(11) [transport properties]; Boninsegni & Prokof'ev RMP(12) [review and theoretical framework]; Kim & Chan PRL(12) + Voss Phy(12) + news sn(12)oct, PhysOrg(12)oct, PT(12)dec [absence of superfluidity in improved experiments]; Hallock PT(15)may [rev].

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