Magnetism in Astrophysics and Cosmology  

* In the Milky Way: The magnetic field in Stanev's model is parametrized as

BMW = (3R/r) cos(θβ ln r/r0) exp{−z/z0}   (not very good near the galactic center).

* Interstellar: One way to detect a B field in interstellar space is to look for polarization of starlight passing through it.
@ Reviews: Maartens Pra(00)ap; Han ASS(01)ap/00-in [Milky Way]; Lazarian & Brunetti MSAI-a1108 [magnetic turbulence, reconnection, and cosmic rays]; Spruit a1301 [magnetohydrodynamics, introductory text].
@ Astrophysical objects: Langer IAU(14)-a1312 [in stars]; Epp & Masterova APPB(15)-a1510 [force-free surfaces]; Lai a1512-proc [ferromagnetism in solid quark-cluster stars]; Isern et al ApJL(17)-a1702 [from planets to white dwarfs]; > s.a. astronomical objects [magnetars]; earth; neutron stars; properties of stars; solar system [the Sun].
@ Milky Way, local: Opher et al Sci(07)may-a0705; Lazarian et al a0902-rp; Frisch AIP(12)-a1111; Frisch et al ApJ(12)-a1206.
@ Milky Way, in general: Han NPPS(08)-a0901 [rev]; Crocker et al Nat(10)jan-a1001 [near galactic center]; Jansson & Farrar ApJ(12)-a1204 [new, improved model]; > s.a. galaxies [including the Milky Way].
@ Other galaxies: Kotarba et al MNRAS(09)-a0905 [spiral]; Beck PoS-a0909, Fletcher ASP-a1104, Han a1212-conf [nearby]; Beck & Wielebinski in(13)-a1302; Van Eck et al ApJ(14)-a1411 [nearby spirals]; Beck A&AR(16)-a1509 [spiral].
@ Intergalactic magnetic fields and gamma-ray astronomy: Neronov & Semikoz PRD(09)-a0910; Essey et al APP(11)-a1012; Finke et al ApJ(15)-a1510.
@ Extragalactic, local: Anchordoqui & Goldberg PRD(02)hp/01; Anchordoqui & Goldberg PRD(02)hp/01 [local intergalactic B > 10−8 G].
@ Extragalactic, other: Kronberg PT(02)dec; Clarkson et al CQG(03)ap/02 [bounds from cmb]; Feretti & Johnston-Hollitt NAR(04)ap-in, Enßlin et al ap/05-in [galaxy clusters]; Cho ApJ(14)-a1410 [intracluster fields are more likely astrophysical than primordial]; > s.a. galaxy evolution.
> Related topics: see Biermann Battery; black-hole phenomenology; phenomenology of magnetism [particle acceleration mechanisms].

Cosmological Magnetic Fields > s.a. matter in cosmology.
* Large-scale / primordial fields: Cosmological magnetic fields are being observed with ever increasing correlation lengths, possibly reaching the size of superclusters; This disfavors the idea that they were generated by primordial seeds and later amplified by galaxy-bound dynamo mechanisms, because the electromagnetic field is conformally invariant and in standard cosmology the inflationary metric is conformally flat, so it is widely believed that primordial magnetic fields are dramatically diluted by the expansion of the universe.
* Theoretically: A universal magnetic field (UMF) has been proposed as a way of avoiding the initial singularity; It also favors the formation of structure.
* Observations: There seem to be Mpc-scale, 10−7–10−5-G magnetic fields in all galaxies and clusters, possibly arising from differential rotation and helical turbulence, but their origin is not totally clear; Search for a universal magnetic field so far has been inconclusive, and it does not seem to be favored by many.
@ Reviews: de Gouveia Dal Pino AIP(06)ap; Durrer & Neronov A&AR(13)-a1303 [generation, evolution and observation]; Kunze PPCF(13)-a1307-conf; Vachaspati RPP(21)-a2010.
@ Large-scale fields: Tsagas gq/01-proc [coupling to geometry]; Giovannini IJMPD(04)ap/03 [theory, rev]; Dar & De Rújula PRD(05)ap [theory]; Lee et al a0906-wd [detection]; Tsagas PPCF(09)-a0911-conf; Urban & Zhitnitsky PRD(10)-a0912 [and dark energy]; Adamek et al JCAP(11) [interaction with free particles and cmb bounds]; Barrow et al PRD(12) [intergalactic fields as evidence for an open universe]; Campanelli PRD(16)-a1512 [superhorizon]; Pshirkov et al PRL(16) [upper limit]; Vachaspati PRD(17)-a1606 [implications].
@ Magnetogenesis: Kandus et al PRP(11)-a1007; Tsagas a1412; Fidler et al a1511 [magnetic field generated around recombination].
@ Primordial, early universe: Garretson et al PRD(92)hp; Davidson PLB(96); Enqvist IJMPD(98)ap; Carroll & Field ap/98-conf; Field & Carroll PRD(00)ap/98; Grasso & Rubinstein PRP(01); Durrer & Caprini JCAP(03) [and causality]; news pw(06)jan [origin]; de Souza & Opher PRD(08)ap/06 [origin in electromagnetic fluctuations]; Brown PhD(06)-a0812; Gruzinov a0905 [generation by "first dynamo"]; Subramanian AN(10)-a0911 [rev]; Kahniashvili et al PRD(10)-a1009 [limits]; Barrow & Tsagas MNRAS(11)-a1101 [evolution and survival in open FLRW spacetimes]; Yamazaki et al PRP(12)-a1204 [models, search, consequences for cmb and structure formation]; Schlickeiser PRL(12) [from magnetic fluctuations]; Campanelli EPJC(14)-a1304 [evolution, mean-field approximation], PRL(13)-a1304 [origin, quantum magnetic fluctuations and inflation]; Membiela NPB(14)-a1312 [in non-singular bouncing cosmology]; Subramanian RPP(16)-a1504 [rev, origin, evolution and signatures]; Saga et al PRD(18)-a1807 [and the gravitational wave background]; Benevides et al JHEP(18)-a1808 [from Weyl anomaly]; > s.a. modified electromagnetism.
@ Primordial, and cmb: Clarkson et al CQG(03)ap/02; Durrer NAR(07)ap/06-proc; Yamazaki et al ApJ(06)ap, PoS-ap/06, PRD(10)-a1001 [constraints]; Paoletti & Finelli PRD(11)-a1005, Shiraishi et al JCAP(12) [constraints]; Miyamoto et al PRD(14)-a1310; Bonvin et al PRL(14) [and BICEP2 data]; > s.a. cmb anisotropies.
@ Primordial, other consequences: Yamazaki et al PRD(06)ap [and large-scale structure]; Battefeld et al JCAP(08)-a0708 [cosmic string loops]; Chluba et al a1503/MNRAS [and ionization history]; Long & Vachaspati PRD(15)-a1504 [particle physics implications, monopoles, axions and neutrinos].
@ And inflation: Giovannini & Shaposhnikov PRD(00); Bamba & Sasaki JCAP(07)ap/06; Demozzi et al JCAP(09)-a0907; Green & Kobayashi JCAP(16)-a1511.
@ Origin: in Olivo-Melchiorri & Melchiorri RNC(85) & refs [UMF]; Hogan ap/00 [from recombination]; Gasperini PRD(01)ap/00 [seeds, theory]; Widrow RMP(02)ap/02; Gaensler et al NAR(04)ap; Dar & De Rújula PRD(05) [winds and cosmic rays]; Shukla PS(05); Subramanian PoS-a0802; Mahajan & Yoshida PRL(10) [vorticity-generating mechanism in relativistic fluid dynamics]; Tevzadze et al ApJ(12)-a1207 [QCD phase transitions in the early universe]; Atmjeet et al PRD(14)-a1312 [higher-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet gravity].

Gravity-Related > see black holes and black-hole phenomenology; cosmological perturbations; duality [dual-magnetic mass]; gravitational wave propagation; gravitomagnetism; matter in cosmology; solutions of einstein's equation with matter; tests of general relativity [gravity of magnetic fields]; weyl tensor.

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