Extrasolar Systems  

General Results and Projects > s.a. Brown Dwarves.
* History: 1992, Announcement of pulsar planets by Alex Wolszczan; 2004, More than 130 giant planets in orbit about nearby stars have been discovered using ground-based telescopes; For some time, it was not clear whether some of the bodies discovered were brown dwarves, since what was measured was not the mass but m cosθ, where θ is the inclination of the orbit with respect to the line of sight; 2016, Nearly 2000 exoplanets are known.
* Plans: 2010, Launch of NASA's interferometer Terrestrial Planet Finder? 2011, TPF and SIM cancelled by NASA.
@ History, plurality of worlds: Snyder SHPSA(07) [Wheewell]; > s.a. history of cosmology.
@ News: Lindley Nat(88)aug; White Nat(89)jan; Mayor & Queloz Nat(95)nov; Time(96)feb5; Vogt et al ApJ(00)ap/99; Werner & Jura SA(09)jun [around white dwarves]; news BBC(09)jun [in M31]; news SA(10)jun [Kepler data release]; news sn(10)aug [multiple-planet systems]; news sa(13)oct [Kepler-56's tilted planet orbits]; news NASA(14)aug [precision measurements]; news lat(15)nv [GJ 1132b, 39 ly away]; news pt(18)oct, sn(18)oct, Kreidberg et al ApJL(19)-a1904 [exomoon spotted?].
@ Books: Morrison 93; Boss 99 [r PT(99)apr]; Cole & Woolfson 02; Boss 09 [r pw(09)jun]; Scharf 09 [and astrobiology]; Johnson 15; Perryman 18 [e1 PT(11)].
@ Overviews: Black SA(91)jan; Sargent & Beckwith PT(93)apr; Boss PT(96)sep; Cochran pw(97)jul; Perryman RPP(00)ap [rev]; Collier Cameron pw(01)jan; Lineweaver et al IAU-ap/02; Marcy et al PTPS(05)ap; Perryman et al ap/05-rp [ESA-ESO report]; Sánchez-Lavega CP(06) [planetodiversity]; Lunine et al a0808-rp, PT(09)may [strategy]; Wright et al ApJ(09)-a0812; Boss pw(09)mar [future]; Johnson PASP-a0903; Baraffe et al RPP(10)-a1001 [physical properties]; George PhEd(11)-a1103 [in the classroom]; Wright & Gaudi a1210-ch [methods]; Heng AS(13)#3-a1304 [ubiquity of exoplanets]; Lemonick SA(13)jul; Perryman AJP(14)jun-a1311 [RL]; Winn & Fabrycky ARAA(15)-a1410; Heng & Winn AS(15)#3 [and future missions]; Ballesteros & Luque AB(16)-a1604; Livio & Silk PT(17)mar [and life]; von Braun & Boyajian 17-a1707 [host star characterization].
@ Abundance: Lineweaver & Grether ApJ(03)ap [fraction, sunlike]; news pw(10)oct [almost one in four sunlike stars could have an earthlike planet]; news sa(12)jun [small planets could form around any type of star]; Johnson PT(14)mar [planets around red dwarfs].
@ Specific planets: Anglada-Escudé et al Nat(16)aug-a1609 [Proxima Cen b]; Gillon et al Nat(17)feb + news PT(17)feb [TRAPPIST-1].
@ Around binaries: Bennett et al Nat(99)ap; Bonavita & Desidera A&A(07)ap; Haghighipour in(08)-a0908; news physorg(11)jul [ternary star system]; Roell et al A&A(12)-a1204 [multiple-star systems]; Armstrong et al MNRAS(14)-a1404 [rate of occurrence]; Eggl et al IAU(14)-a1412 [dynamics and habitability]; Kley & Haghighipour A&A(15)-a1506 [eccentric, Kepler-34]; Bonavita et al A&A(16)-a1605 [SPOTS survey, first results].
@ Free-floating planets: Hurley & Shara AS(02)mar; Sumi et al Nat(11)-a1105 + news nasa(11)may [microlensing, abundant]; news sn(17)jul [rare].
@ Other objects: news NASA(18)jun, Bialy & Loeb ApJL(18)-a1810 ['Oumuamua].
@ Other properties: Mazeh et al ApJL(98)ap [mass distribution]; Espresate ap/05/RMAA [catalog]; Stevenson PT(04)apr; Lyra a0910 [naming].
blue bullet Other aspects: see astronomy education; theory and related topics [including astrobiology].

Observation Methods > s.a. sources of gravitational radiation.
* Indirect: From gravitational effects, like Astrometry of nearby stars (1999, First one seen); Doppler shift in spectra of nearby stars (1996, Has given several planets, accuracy ± 3–11 m/s); Timing of pulsars (gave 3 planets for one pulsar, unexpectedly – how could they survive?).
* Direct: Direct photography (1998, achieved by HST, but only for circumstellar disk); Gravitational lensing/microlensing (achieved in 1999); Eclipse effect on nearby stars (1998, "not very likely"; 1999, achieved); Interferometry of their IR radiation (1996, very delicate, but projects have been proposed; Can tune to lines of molecules signaling life).
@ General references: Fischer et al in(14)-a1505 [rev]; Margot AJ(15)-a1507 [criterion for defining planets].
@ Microlensing: Sahu SP-ap/97; Di Stefano & Scalzo ApJ(99)ap/98, ApJ(99)ap/98; Safizadeh et al ApJ(99)ap/98; Bozza A&A(00)ap/99; Sackett ESO(00)ap/99; Baltz & Gondolo ap/99 [extragalactic]; Gaudi ASP-ap/02 [review]; Dominik ap/03-MGX; Cassan & Kubas ASP-ap/06; Gaudi ASP-a0711 [rev]; Cassan et al IAU(07)-a0711; De Paolis et al NCB(07); Bennett in(08)-a0902; Ingrosso et al a1001-MG12 [in M31, proposal].
@ Transits: Gillon et al A&A(05)ap [surveys]; Narita AIP(09)-a0906 [rev]; Pepper et al PASP(07)-a0704 [KELT, Kilodegree Extremely Little Telescopes].
@ Space missions: Kuchner ap/05-conf [TPF]; Ford PASP(06)ap/05 [SIM, effect of multiple planets]; Sherrill SA(05)nov-dec [TPF]; Olling a0704-rp [LEAVITT proposal]; news msnbc(11)jun [loss of TPF and SIM]; Ricker et al JATIS(15)-a1406 [TESS]; Lissauer et al nIns(14)sep-a1409, Gould et al TPT(15) [Kepler]; Lissauer & Eisberg NAR(18)-a1908 [Kepler].
@ Direct detection / imaging: Burrows Nat(05)ap; Chelli A&A(05)ap; Stapelfeldt et al a0707-rp; Hinz et al a0902-rp [rocky, prospects]; Bendek et al SPIE(15)-a1510, Thomas et al SPIE(15)-a1510; Wagner et al Sci(16)aug-a1607 [Jovian planet in a triple star system].
@ Astrometric detection: Sozzetti PASP(05)ap; Sahlmann et al SPIE(13)-a1309 [from the ground].
@ Related topics: Sackett ap/98-in, Doyle et al SA(00)sep [occultation]; Ford et al Nat(01)ap [photometric variability]; Charbonneau ap/03-conf [follow-up]; news pw(10)jan [spectrum]; news ng(11)apr [using auroral radio emissions]; news ut(13)may [BEER algorithm and results]; Pepe et al AN-a1401 [ESPRESSO]; Wright et al ApJ(16)-a1510 [signatures of planet-sized artificial structures]; Montet & Loomis a1603 [occurrence rate of environmental movements on Earthlike planets :-)].

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