Astronomy in Various Wavelength Ranges  

Infrared Astronomy > s.a. observational cosmology [cosmic infrared background, CIBER]; radio astronomy.
* 1980s: IRAS satellite (NASA).
* 1995: Infrared Space Observatory put into orbit (ESA): 3-200 micron, 10 times the spatial resolution of IRAS, more sensitive.
* 2003: Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly known as Space Infrared Telescope Facility) launched in Earth-trailing orbit.
* 2013: CIBER (Cosmic Infrared Background Experiment) launched.
* 2014: CIBER results indicate that stars ejected from galaxies may form a vast, interconnected sea between the galaxies [@ NASA].
* Cosmic IR background: One motivation to study it is to learn more about population III stars, whose light is now mostly IR.
@ General references: NS(95)nov4; Richards & McCreight PT(05)feb [detectors]; Werner AS(09)nov [Spitzer Space Telescope]; Rowan-Robinson 13.
@ Cosmic IR background: news pn(98)jan; Biller et al PRL(98) [limits]; Kashlinsky PRP(05)ap/04; Fernandez & Komatsu ApJ(06)ap/05, Fernandez et al ApJ(10)-a0906 [near IR]; Lagache et al ap/05-proc [sources]; Kashlinsky et al ApJL(07)ap/06 [sources]; Pritchard & Loeb RPP(12)-a1109 [rev]; news ucla(12)oct [do dark-matter halos contain stars that act as sources?]; Krabbe et al EJP(13) [the SOFIA airborne observatory]; Schmidt et al MNRAS(14)-a1407 [redshift distribution]; Carniani et al A&A(15)-a1502 [as seen by ALMA].
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

Optical Astronomy > s.a. astronomy [general references]; gravitational lensing; matter in the universe [various backgrounds].
* Telescopes: Keck I & II, Mauna Kea, HI; Hubble Space Telescope {Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2}.
* Liquid mirrors: The advantage is that to give them the required parabolic profile all one needs to do is to place them on a spinning platter; The disadvantage is that they can only point straight up.
@ Telescopes: Martin et al PT(91)mar [ground-based]; Roggemann et al RMP(97).
@ Interferometry: Beardsley SA(96)jul; Bedding ap/96-proc, ASP-ap/00; Saha & Morel BASI-ap/00; Hajian & Armstrong SA(01)mar; Saha RMP(02)ap; Haniff & Buscher pw(03)may; Millour NAR(08)-a0804; Aufdenberg et al a0905-rp, ten Brummelaar et al PT(09)jun [long-baseline optical interferometry and stellar astrophysics].
@ HST: Hoyle Nat(90)apr; Fosbury ap/96-proc [future]; Ellis ap/97-proc, Ferguson et al ARAA(00)ap [Deep Fields].
@ Adaptive optics: Hardy SA(94)may; Thompson PT(94)dec.
@ Related topics: Hardy PW(94)may, p40 [CCDs]; Cabanac ap/97-proc, Borra ap/97-proc, ap/01, Hickson AS(07)may [liquid mirrors]; Hinz et al Nat(98)sep [starlight nulling]; news Sci(99)jun [future large telescopes]; Tennyson 05 [spectroscopy]; Gibbs SA(05)dec [mirrors]; Barber a1204 [re cancellation of OWL].
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

Ultraviolet Astronomy
@ References: Bowyer SA(94)aug [extreme UV]; PW(94)jan, p35, Brosch ap/96-conf [surveys]; Henry a1205 [diffuse UV cosmic background].
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

X-Ray Astronomy > s.a. astronomical objects; black-hole phenomenology; neutron stars; polarization [vacuum birefringence]; X-Rays.
* History: 1969, First X-ray satellite observatory was Uhuru, launched from Kenya (on the V anniversary of the Kenyan independence, its name means "freedom" in kiswahili); 1999–2000, Major development with the launch of Chandra, which resolved most of the X-ray background into individual sources.
* Sources: One of the intrinsically strongest sources is Cygnus X-3 (irregular, binary, possibly neutron star + companion, T ~ 4.79 hr); An intriguing possibility for a black hole is Cygnus X-1; SS433 is an X-ray binary.
@ Books: Tucker & Giacconi 85 [I]; Seward & Charles 10; Arnaud et al 11.
@ Overviews: Fabian ap/00-proc [in cosmology]; Day PT(00)may [status]; Blandford ap/02-proc [status]; White ap/02-conf [future]; Hasinger ap/02-proc [cosmic X-ray background]; Blandford PTRS(02)ap/03; Weisskopf a1208-conf [Chandra X-ray Observatory report]; Weisskopf a1303-AIP [history and personal role].
@ X-ray binaries: Gursky & van den Heuvel SA(75)mar; van den Heuvel & van Paradijs SA(93)nov; Helfand PT(95)nov; Bonnet-Bidaud & Chardin PRP(88) [Cyg X-3].
@ Related topics: van der Klis SA(88)nov [quasi-periodic]; Kouveliotou & van Paradijs AS(97) [X-ray bursts]; Bhardwaj et al ap/02-proc [from small solar system objects]; Wang IAU(12)-a1112 [galactic sources].
@ Telescopes, missions: Diehl PoS-a1005 [INTEGRAL mission overview]; Harrison & Hailey SA(11)feb.
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

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