Minor Solar-System Objects  

Asteroids > s.a. {comets below}; Yarkovsky Effect; interstellar matter.
* Formation: Probably in the flat disk around a star, either from leftover gas and dust, or as chunks of protoplanets as a result of collisions.
* Missions: 1996, Probe NEAR launched; 1999, Deep Space 1 encounters Braille; 2000, NEAR meets Eros.
* Examples: Braille (between Earth and Mars, chunk of Vesta?); Castalia; Ceres (largest); Eros; Gaspra; Ida (binary); Mathilde; Toutatis; Vesta (in asteroid belt, diameter 325 mi).
@ General references: Peebles 00 [history]; Asphaug SA(00)may; issue PT(04)apr; Crawford ch-a1306 [motivation for exploration]; Fernández et al ch(15)-a1507 [rev, and comets].
@ Evolution: Rubin AS(97); Cheng Icarus(04); Dell'Oro et al Icarus(04); Durda et al Icarus(04) [impacts and satellites]; Rubin SA(05)may [impacts and heating]; Morbidelli et al Icarus(09)-a0907 [planetesimal size distribution]; Delbo et al Nat(14)apr [thermal cycling and regolith]; IAU(15)-a1410 [small asteroid systems]; Morbidelli et al a1501 [evolution of the asteroid belt]; Johansen et al a1505-ch, Carrera et al a1604-proc [formation]; Izidoro et al ApJ-a1609 [and chaos in the early solar system].
@ Chaotic motion: Mikkola & Innauen MNRAS(95); Siregar ITB-a1107 [asteroid 3552 Don Quixote]; > s.a. lyapunov exponents.
@ Binaries: news SFN(08)jul [reason is YORP effect]; Naoz et al ApJ(10)-a1001 [orbital properties]; Walsh & Jacobson in(15)-a1506
@ Missions: news pt(15)mar [NASA's asteroid redirect mission].
@ Ceres: Rogozin a1403 [possible origin]; Cunningham 16 [discovery].
@ Related topics: Holman Nat(97)jun + pn(97)jun [new belt between Uranus & Neptune]; Klacka ap/00 [and solar wind, radiation]; Marchis et al Nat(05)aug [triple system 87 Sylvia]; Lämmerzahl et al gq/06-proc [anomalies]; Belyaev & Rafikov Icarus(11)-a1012 [fragmentation and non-power-law size distribution]; Martin & Livio MNRAS(13)-a1211 [asteroid belts and their potential significance for life]; news nat(14)mar [asteroid Chariklo has rings!].

Comets > s.a. solar system [Kuiper Belt and Oort Cloud].
* History: They were considered atmospheric phenomena until Tycho Brahe, measured the distance to one of them using parallax.
* Idea: Roughly spherical ice and rock balls (they may look bright in the sky, but their surfaces are actually very dark), from the nebula out of which the solar system condensed; Most are located in the Kuiper belt and Oort cloud.
@ General references: Hughes CP(94) [and asteroids]; Schaaf 97; Nuth AS(01) [formation]; Efroimsky ASR(02)ap/01; Brandt & Chapman 04; Fernández 05 [r PT(06)sep]; Brownlee PT(08)jun [and early solar system]; Crovisier et al EMP(09)-a0901-proc [chemical diversity]; Battams & Knight PTRS(17)-a1611 [overview of SOHO results].
@ Halley's: Balsiger et al SA(88); Gurzadyan & Vardanyan A&G(04)phy [87 BC].
@ History: Schechner 99 [and culture]; Kak phy/03 [XV-XVI century Kashmiri chronicles]; Olson & Pasachoff a1212-proc [comet hunter Caroline Herschel, 1750-1848]; Das Gupta a1411-conf, a1704-conf [in ancient India]; Neuhäuser et al JHA(16)-a1607 [Tycho Brahe and Abu Mashar's observations].
@ Related topics: Frogel & Gould ApJL(98)ap [comet showers]; Ipatov ASR(01)ap-in [near Earth]; Delsemme AS(01) [and Earth's water]; Ćirković EMP(02)ap/03 [Fontenelle's anthropic argument]; Maston SA(09)oct [and close stellar passages]; Haghighipour IAU(10)-a0911 [main-belt comets]; Wickramasinghe 09 [life]; Kaib & Quinn Sci(09)-a0912 [source of long-period comets]; news SA(10)jun [from other stars]; Trigo-Rodríguez & Martín-Torres PSS(12)-a1102 [importance for Titan and Earth]; Schrijver et al PT(13)oct [as solar probes]; Randall & Reece PRL(14)-a1403 [dark galactic disk and comet periodicity]; > s.a. life [panspermia]; Napier MNRAS(15)-a1503 [giant comets and mass extinctions].
@ Extrasolar: Lecavelier des Etangs et al A&A-ap/98; Cook et al ApJ(16)-a1607 [interstellar, detectability].

Dwarf Planets > s.a. solar system [Kuiper Belt].
* History: 2006, Resolution passed at the IAU General Assembly introducing the classification; Five dwarf planets recognized then (Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, Eris), with more likely to follow; 2014, Discovery of Sedna-like dwarf planet 2012 VP113; 2015, Pluto flyby by New Horizons.
@ Pluto, in general: news pn(96)mar [surface imaging by HST]; Stern & Mitton 98 [+ Charon, r: pw(98)mar, 2nd ed 06]; Yu & Tremaine AJ(99)ap [plutinos]; Stern et al ap/05 [quadruple system]; Weaver et al Nat(06)feb-ap [2 new satellites]; Olkin et al a1309 [atmosphere]; Barr & Collins Icarus(14)-a1403 [Pluto-Charon system].
@ Pluto, spacecraft exploration: Stern SA(02)may [mission]; Stern SSR(08)-a0709 [New Horizons overview]; news sa(15)jul [puzzling first results from flyby]; Stern et al Sci(15)oct-a1510 [New Horizons results]; Gladstone et al Sci-a1604 [atmosphere]; Weaver et al Sci-a1604 [satellites].
@ Other dwarf planets: Jilkova et al MNRAS(15)-a1506 [Sedna as captured from a solar sibling]; news pt(16)jun, pt(16)aug [two kinds].
> Online resources: see Wikipedia page.

NEOs, Meteoroids
@ General references: Foschini in(99)phy/98 [danger for space navigation].
@ NEOs: Gehrels SA(96)mar; Foschini A&A(99)ap/98 [Tunguska event]; Namouni et al ap/99 [co-orbital asteroid 3753 Cruithne]; Wiegert et al Icarus(00)ap/99, Skokos & Dokoumetzidis A&A(01)ap/00 [Trojan]; Schweickart et al SA(03)nov, Lu & Love Nat-ap/05 [NEO tractor]; Polishook & Brosch ap/06-conf [binary ones]; Gratton & Perazzo AJP(06)sep [catastrophic impacts]; Gasperini SA(08)may [Tunguska event]; Tricarico CQG(09) [detection, with LISA]; news sn(10)sep [close brushes]; Tonry PASP(11)-a1011 [early warning system]; Todd et al MNRAS(12)-a1111 [Trojan search strategy]; Durand-Manterola & Cordero-Tercero a1403 [the Chicxulub impactor]; Remo & Haubold BAS(14)-a1409 [20 years of studies]; Rumpf a1410 [risk analysis]; Myhrvold a1506 [NEO search telescopes]; Kramer PT(15)sep [statistics and search]; > s.a. logic [fuzzy logic characterization].
@ Meteorites: Heide & Wlotzka 95; Rubin SA(13)feb [chondrites]; Grady et al 14 [atlas].
@ Meteors: Yang et al Icarus(05)ap [Asian historical records]; Zamora et al a1511-proc [frequency of superfireballs, 1850–2000].

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