Sound and Music  

In General
@ And physics: Rigden 85; Roederer 95; Johnston 09; Parker 09 [r PT(10)aug].
@ And mathematics: Mazzola 85, 03; Segre m.HO/04 [tonal harmony]; Zweifel JSP(05); Loy 07 [r PT(08)dec]; Demaine et al CG(09) [distance geometry and rhythms].
@ And the history of science: Levenson 94.
@ Related topics: Hsu & Hsu PNAS(91) [fractal music]; Godwin 93 [music of the spheres]; news Nat(04)nov [and composer's language].

Musical Instruments
* Earliest instruments: 50,000 BC, recorder-style bone flute found in a Slovenian cave.
@ General references: Fletcher & Rossing 98; Jackson 06 [physicists, musicians, and instrument makers in XIX-century Germany]; Campbell PT(14)apr; Chaigne & Kergomard 16.
@ Drums: Rossing PT(92)mar; Rossing 00; Malu & Siddharthan mp/00.
@ Keyboard instruments: Lubenow & Meyn EJP(07) [tuning]; Giordano 10 [piano]; news pt(15)may [longitudinal waves].
@ Percussion: Rossing et al PT(96)mar [steel drums]; Suits AJP(01)jul [xylophone and marimbas].
@ Violin: Schumacher & Woodhouse CP(95) [computer model]; Gough pw(00)apr [Stradivarius]; Wali 09 [Cremona violins].
@ Wind instruments: Campbell CP(99) [reed and brass dynamics]; Cottingham PT(11)mar [free-reed instruments].
@ Cognitive aspects: Leman 95.

Human Hearing and Voice
* Ranges: 2 × 10–10 to 2 × 10–4 atm for tonal hearing without damage, can discriminate Δf / f = 0.0015.
* Hearing: Our ears can almost hear the wisper of the brownian motion.
@ Hearing: De Boer PRP(80), PRP(84), PRP(91), and refs; Sataloff SA(92)dec; Hartmann PT(99)nov [sound localization]; Duke pw(02)may; Deutsch PT(10)feb [hearing music in ensembles]; Martignoli & Stoop PRL(10) [pitch perception]; Kraus PT(11)jun [how experience molds the perception of sound]; Ushakov et al PRL(11) + news prf(11)sep + sn(11)sep [musical chord perception]; news PhysOrg(13)feb, ns(13)feb [human hearing beats the Fourier uncertainty principle]; Gomez et al PRApp(14) + news isns(14)mar [tuning in and listening]; news pt(14)apr [pitch and spatial directions].
@ Hearing, books: Helmholtz 1877; Handel 93; Luce 93; Peretz & Zatorre ed-01, ed-01 [biological foundations of music].
@ The ear: Ramm PLA(06) [shape of ear canal]; news pw(13)apr [how the ear responds to very soft sounds].
@ Speech and language: Werker AS(89); Olive et al 93 [American English]; Patel 10 [and music, cognitive neuroscience]; Myers PT(17)apr [sound processing and meaning].

Psychoacoustics > s.a. sound.
* Frequency and pitch: Not exactly the same thing; Very low frequencies all give the same pitch; Intensity affects pitch.
* Non-linear effects: Our ear partly integrates sounds, up to 50 ms (reverberation increases loudness); We can perceive difference tones Δf corresponding to non-existing frequencies, and beats between different ears!
@ General references: Roederer 95; Howard 96; Fastl & Zwicker 06 [e2 r PT(01)jun]; Cook & Hayashi AS(08)#4 [harmony perception]; Heller 12 [r PT(13)apr, AJP(14)mar].
@ Frequency vs perceived pitch: Neuhoff & McBeath AJP(97)jul [Doppler effect].
@ Processing in the brain: Deutsch SA(92)aug; Cartwright et al PRL(99) + pn(99)jun [non-linear].

Architectural Acoustics
* Idea: For sound quality, want to increase direct sound vs diffuse sound, but for spaciousness want some reflections from side walls; Optimal width is smaller than depth – shoebox shape.
@ References: Thompson 02; news pw(13)jun [how to hear the shape of a room]; Lokki PT(14)jan [concert halls].

Other References
@ I: Hall TPT(89) [experiments with a guitar]; Kruth & Stobart ed-00.
@ General references: Strong & Plitnik 92; Taylor 92; Rossing & Fletcher 95; Rossing et al 02; Berg & Stork 04; Hartmann 13.
@ Sound Spectrum (Wall Chart, 56 × 86 cm) SF: The Exploratorium 93 [r AJP(94)aug Rossing].
@ Related topics: Rose ed-10 [neurology of music]; Hodges & Sebald 10 [music psychology].
> Online resources: see Exploratorium page.


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