Fixed-Point
Theorems |

**In General** > s.a. posets.

* __Simple example__: If
I hold a map of an area including the point where I stand, there must be a
point on the map which is exactly above the corresponding
point of the real world (even if I deform or crumple the map).

* __Motivation__: If *A* is
any differential operator, the existence of solutions of the equation *A
f* =
0 is equivalent to the existence of fixed points for *A* + I; We are
interested in equations like d*f* = 0 for the study of critical points
(> see morse
theory, etc).

* __Applications__: The earliest
one was to the existence of periodic orbits for 3 bodies.

@ __General references__: Granas & Dugundji
03; Farmakis & Moskowitz 13 [and applications].

@ __Various types__: Prykarpatsky a0902 [Leray-Schauder, Borsuk-Ulam type generalization].

> __Online resources__:
see Wikipedia page.

**Simple Case: Real Functions of One Variable**

$ __Def__: Given any interval
[*a*, *b*] ⊂ \(\mathbb R\),
any *f* : [*a*,* b*] → [*a*,* b*] must
have at least one fixed point (the graph must cross at least once the
line *x* = *y*).

**Brouwer Fixed-Point Theorem**

$ __Def__: Any continuous *f* :
D^{n} → D^{n} has
(at least) one fixed point (D^{n} is
the *n*-dimensional ball).

* __Special cases__: For *n* =
2, it can be proved using the fundamental group, through the fact that S^{1} is
not a retract of D^{2} (in general, it is done
using higher-order homotopy groups, or considering the index of the vector
field *v*(*x*):= *x* – *f*(*x*),
at different points with respect to different loops).

**Lefschetz Fixed-Point Theorem**

* __Idea__: Let *S* be
an *n*-dimensional manifold (or "almost"),
and *f* a map *f *: *S* → *S*; Then *f* induces
a map *f*_{*} of the homology groups,

*f*_{*}: H_{i} → H_{i}, for * i* =
1, ..., *n*,

and from these we can define some numbers *n*_{i}, which are something like
the trace of *f*_{*}, and

*L* = ∑_{i} (–1)^{i}* n*_{i} , the
Lefschetz number ;

The theorem states that this number can also be obtained as a sum of contributions
of all the fixed points of *f*.

* __Relationships__: It is like
a finite (as opposed to infinitesimal) generalization of the concept of Euler
characteristic.

* __Example__: Consider the
inversion map on S^{2}, *A*:
S^{2} →
S^{2};
We know that this does not have any fixed points; *H*_{0} = \(\mathbb R\),
*H*_{1} = 0, *H*_{2} = \(\mathbb R\),
and

*L* = ∑_{i} (–1)^{i}* n*_{i} =
1 · 1 + (–1) · 0 + 1 · (–1) = 0 ;

If the map had been orientation-preserving, there would have been fixed points and *L* ≠ 0.

* __Example__: Every Lorentz transformation fixes at least one null direction.

@ __References__: van Lon MS-a1509 [quantum mechanical path integral methods, and other index theorems].

**Borel Fixed-Point Theorem**

$ __Def__: A connected solvable
linear algebraic group over an algebraic closed
field, when acting on a complete variety, has a fixed point.

@ __References__: Borel AM(56).

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