Experiments in Quantum Theory  

In General > s.a. Complementarity; history of quantum theory; interference; quantum correlations.
* Idea: The field of "experimental metaphysics" (Shimony) has become a well-developed one, helped both by new experimental techniques, and by the emergence of quantum information science.
@ Reviews, books: Lamoreaux IJMPA(92) [rev]; Haroche & Raimond 06; news nat(15)may.
@ General references: Torgerson et al PLA(95), Branning AS(97)mar [local realism and experiments]; Genovese et al PLB(01)qp, FP(02)qp/01 [with mesons]; Carlson et al AJP(06)mar [local realism]; Heinosaari & Ziman APS(08)-a0810-ln [mathematical]; Cavalcanti PhD(08)-a0810; Sanders pw(08)dec [visualizations]; Semenov & Vogel PRA(11)-a1004 [fake violations of quantum theory]; Stuart et al PRL(12)-a1105 [theories with more predictive power than quantum theory]; Curceanu et al JPCS(12); Aharonov & Vazirani a1206-ch ["interactive experiments" and the falsifiability of quantum mechanics]; Tsang QMetr(13)-a1306 [statistical approach to tests].
> Gedankenexperiments: see Einstein's Boxes; EPR-type experiments [and Bell's inequalities]; Kochen-Specker Experiment.

Experiments on Superluminal Communication > s.a. causality violations; quantum effects.
* Delayed choice: Name given by Wheeler to a set of experiments on the predictions of quantum mechanics; One prepares a system in some state, and chooses what measurement will be performed (one that will detect particlelike properties or wavelike properties) on the system only after the preparation; The surprise provided by the original delayed-choice experiment led Wheeler to the conclusion that 'no phenomenon is a phenomenon until it is an observed phenomenon'; Results obtained in 2007 by A Aspectet al with single photons, and by A Truscott in 2015 with atoms confirm the predictions of quantum mechanics and indicate that, barring backward causation, a particle decides whether to be a wave or a particle when the measurement is carried out.
@ General references: Wheeler in(78); Svozil pr(89)qp/01; Englert et al ZN(92).
@ Delayed choice: Bohm et al Nat(85)may [and quantum potential]; Griffiths FdP(98)qp [and consistent histories]; Srikanth qp/01-in [and quantum field theory]; Hiley & Callaghan PS(06)-a1602 [and the Bohm approach]; Jacques et al Sci(07)qp/06 + news pw(07)feb, comment Norsen qp/06, Roussel & Stefan a0706 [experimental realization]; Jacques et al AP-P(07)-a0710; Zhao et al EPL(08)-a0712 [with photons, simulation]; Gaasbeek a1007 [didactical and intuitive explanation]; Ionicioiu & Terno PRL(11)-a1103 + Schirber Phy(11) [quantum version]; Ma et al RMP(16)-a1407 [gedanken experiments, and their realizations]; Heaney a1409 [proposed resolution of paradox]; Manning et al nPhys(15)may + news pw(15)may [single ultracold metastable He atom in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer]; news Vang(15)oct [with quantum die]; > s.a. black holes and information.

Macroscopic Scales > s.a. classical limit.
* Schrödinger's cat: Thought experiment proposed in 1935 by E Schrödinger; 1996, Real experiment done at NIST with a charged beryllium atom instead of a cat; The group demonstrated that the atom could be at two different locations and have two different spin states at the same time, from the interference pattern they observed; 2016, Demonstration with a large number of photons in two microwave cavities; > s.a. pilot-wave interpretation; Wikipedia page.
@ General references: Leggett CP(84) [intro to macroscopic quantum tunneling]; Valentini JPA(07)ht/06 [astrophysics and cosmology]; Rideout et al CQG(12)-a1206 [fundamental quantum-optics experiments with satellites]; Howl et al a1607-AiP [quantum field theory and gravity].
@ Schrödinger's cat: Lubkin IJTP(79); Loeser AJP(84)dec, comment Ballentine AJP(86)oct [three perspectives]; Bussey PLA(87); Mermin PT(90)jun; Sakaguchi qp/95; Monroe et al Sci(96)may + pn(96)may [Be ions]; Wódkiewicz NJP(00) [non-locality]; Mould qp/02; Choi SA(03)feb [scaled-up version]; news nat(09)sep ["Schrödinger's virus" experiment proposal]; Wilson a1208 [objection]; Nikolić EJP(15)-a1406 [what is it like to be the cat]; news pw(16)may [experiment with microwave cavities].
@ Other quantum superpositions: Haigh et al OC(10)-a0907 [BECs]; Romero-Isart et al NJP(10)-a0909 [living organisms].

Types of Experiments > s.a. experiments in physics; foundations; realism [including non-local]; uncertainty.
* Non-demolition: Technique to make a measurement on a particle without destroying it or absorbing energy from it; An antenna can in principle be used to measure arbitrarily weak classical signals with arbitrary accuracy.
* GHZ experiment / theorem: (Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger) Demonstrates the impossibility of certain types of local hidden-variable theories.
@ Non-demolition: Braginsky et al Sci(80)aug; Caves et al RMP(80); Braginsky & Khalili RMP(96); Nogues Nat(99)jul + pn(99)jul [photons]; Camacho GRG(01) [inhomogeneous gravitational field]; Staszewski & Staszewska PLA(01) [on coherent state]; news pw(07)mar, Gerry & Bui PLA(08) [photons]; Sherman et al PRL(13) + news PhysOrg(13)nov [recovery of a qubit from partial collapse].
@ Entangled states: Laflamme et al PTRS(98)qp/97; Banaszek & Wódkiewicz PRL(99) [and Wigner function]; news pt(15)nov [loophole-free].
@ Quantum (anti-)Zeno effect: Itano et al PRA(90); Venugopalan & Ghosh qp/95; Fischer et al PRL(01)qp [unstable, Na atoms]; Toschek EPL(13) + news PhysOrg(13)jun [critique of experiments].
@ Quantum trajectories: Kröger PRA(97)qp; Brun AJP(02)jul-qp/01; Floyd qp/03-proc [high-energy limit], qp/03-proc [vs Copenhagen].
@ Numerical: Kisil in(02)qp/01 [trajectories, 2 slits]; > s.a. collapse of the wave function.
@ GHZ: Clifton et al FP(91) [generalized]; Żukowski PLA(91) [similar]; Lloyd PRA(98) [microscopic analogs]; Bouwmeester et al PRL(99) [3-photon]; Acacio de Barros & Suppes PRL(00) [detector inefficiency]; Khrennikov PLA(01); Svozil NJP(06)qp/02 [simultaneous measurements]; Chen PRA(04) [proof]; You et al PLA(04) [relativistic]; Deng & Chen a0911 [test with 1D Ising model].
@ On decoherence: Anglin & Zurek qp/96-proc [induced currents and interference patterns].
@ On locality: Torgerson et al PRA(95) [photon polarization-correlation measurements]; Nha & Carmichael PRL(04) [continuous variables]; Scheidl et al PNAS(10)-a0811 [and freedom of choice]; Slavnov PPN(10)-a1010; Fuwa et al nComm(15)-a1412 [photon wave function collapse]; Iannuzzi a1601 [critique of claims].
@ Light: Brida et al PLA(04)qp [wave-particle duality]; Lundeen et al Nat(11)jun-a1112 [measurement of the wave function].
@ Atoms: Wunderlich & Balzer in(03)qp [trapped ions]; Lindner et al PRA(03)qp [states as direction indicators]; Gondran et al APPA(07)qp-proc [slits, Rydberg atoms, and the wave function interpretation]; news pn(07)apr, pw(07)apr [tunneling from atoms].
@ Particle decay: Skalsey PRD(86) [β decay]; Klein & Nystrand PLA(03)qp/02 [and wave-function collapse].
@ Other types: Ni qp/99, Plaga FPL(00)qp [general]; Hansson qp/00 [underlying deterministic chaos?]; Sinha et al AIP(09) [probability sum rules]; Suarez a1410 [ruling out the pilot-wave quantum potential]; > s.a. Aharonov-Casher effect; Contextuality; geometric phase; hilbert space; neutron [interferometry]; particle statistics; Popper's Experiment; quantum mechanics in curved spacetimes [tests]; Stern-Gerlach Experiment.
> And interpretations of quantum theory: see hidden variables; many-worlds interpretation; pilot-wave theory; ψ-EpistemicTheories; ψ-Ontic Theories.


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