Experimental Particle Physics  

In General > s.a. particle physics; XX-century physics [institutions, labs].
* 2001: Five centers operating in the front line, CERN, DESY, Fermilab, Stanford, and KEK; Main goals are search for the Higgs boson, super particles, and a detailed study of quark and lepton properties; The Tevatron (Fermilab, 1+1 TeV) and LHC (under construction at CERN, completion expected in 2006) will search for the Higgs boson; LC (international, probably at Fermilab) proposed for detailed study of decay modes; B-factories (Stanford and KEK) will probe the difference between matter and antimatter in greater detail; Under consideration are a VLHC, a muon storage ring, and a neutrino factory.
* 2012: The LHC (with upgrades) will keep studying Higgs physics; The Tevatron shut down; The next machines may include the ILC, muon collider and/or LEP3.
* 2015: An upgrade to the Continuous Beam Electron Accelerator Facility (CEBAF), used primarily to probe the internal structure of protons and neutrons, is being completed; The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is being built and should be completed by 2020, and will generate exotic nuclei and study their structure; RHIC should run for another several years; US physicists push for electron-proton or heavy nuclei collider, and new neutrino experiment to find out if the neutrino is a Majorana particle.
@ References: Fernow 86; Perkins 00; Bettoni et al PRP(06) [future]; Cahn & Goldhaber 09; news NYT(11)jan, bbc(11)sep [Tevatron closing]; Boyarkin 07, 11; Franklin 13 [XX century]; news at(14)mar [beyond the LHC]; news sci(15)oct [recommendations].
> Online resources: see Interactions.org website.

Accelerator Physics > s.a. black-hole formation; QCD phenomenology [RHIC]; string phenomenology.
* Idea: Accelerate particles to high energies and make them collide, so properties of their interactions (mainly electroweak and strong) can be obtained from the cross sections for scattering and production of new types of particles; The main types are electron-positron and proton colliders.
* History: Up to the 1970s, elastic scattering experiments were thought to be the best to probe nuclear structure (inelastic ones were considered too messy), but deep inelastic scattering proved more effective (nuclei have no massive core like atoms), and led to Bjorken and Feynman's studies, scaling, partons, and the connection to previously proposed quarks.
- 1996: m-long laser accelerators for electrons up to MeVs (D Umstadter et al, PRL); Energy up to GeVs expected soon.
* Major steps and accelerators: Cyclotron, phase stability (relativistic change in mass); strong focussing (BNL: reduced size), storage rings (ISR), superconducting magnets.
- LEP: 50+50 GeV e+e data from 1989 (Z resonance, × 107 seen); 70+70 GeV e+e from 1995 (expect perhaps supersymmetric particles); 98+98 GeV expected in 1998 with SC magnets; Shut down in 2000 for LHC construction.
- SLC: Taking data from 1989.
- SSC (Superconducting Supercollider): 20 × 20 TeV pp, cost 3–6 × 109 USD, 82.9 km circumference; Approved by Reagan (01.1987); Site selected Waxahachie, Texas; Killed by congress (data were expected by 1994-1996).
- FEL γ-ray beam: Intense, collimated, monoenergetic 122 MeV γs [@ Litvinenko et al PRL(97)].
* LHC: It uses the same tunnel as LEP, but Ecm = 14 TeV; 2006, Data taking expected by 2007; 2007, Switch-on in May 2008; 2008, Switched on, but shut down in September because of magnet quench; 2009, LHC to restart in November at half its design energy; Mar-Apr 2010, ECM = 7 TeV achieved, operation started; 2012, ECM increased to 8 TeV, with higher luminosity; 2016, proton collisions at 13 TeV.
* Muon collider project: Feasibility studied (09.1996); Advantage is smaller size than e+e, better use of energy (TeV) than p+p-bar; μs live little but enough; Production and cooling to be studied.
* LEP3: 2012, A proposed accelerator placed alongside the LHC in the same tunnel (previously used by LEP), which would collide electrons and positrons.
* Magnets: Use dipoles for beam bending, quadrupoles for focussing (in one plane each).
* For neutral atoms: 2001, 1-cm radius "Nevatron" storage ring built; atoms move at about 1 m/s, their dipole moments pulled by magnetic fields. Could be used for atom optics, as part of a quantum computer, or as a very sensitive gyroscope [@ Sauer et al PRL(01)].
@ General references: Myers & Picasso SA(90)jul [LEP]; Riordan HSPBS(01) [SSC]; Berkelman 04 [CESR/CLEO]; Hinchliffe & Battaglia PT(04)sep [TeV linear collider]; Telnov APPB(06)phy-conf [photon colliders]; Joshi SA(06)feb [plasma accelerators]; Domondon SHPSA(09) [demise of SSC in epistemological terms]; Lach a1007-conf [1990s accelerators]; Jayakumar 12 [and hep and history]; Hamm & Hamm PT(11)jun [uses of accelerator beams in industry]; Grannis & Jenni PT(13)jun [hadron-collider experiments]; Barish & Brau IJMPA(13) [International Linear Collider design]; Amaldi 15 [history].
@ News: pw(07)feb [International Linear Collider proposal]; sci(11)apr, nyt(11)apr, Aaltonen PRL(11), disc(11)jun, bbc(11)jun, wired(11)jun, cbs(11)jun [Fermilab CDF physicists see something weird; cross-checks by D0 fail to confirm the observation]; wired(11)sep [interview with David Britton on future]; ntd(12)jan [Chi-b(3P) discovery]; symm(12)jan [Fermilab's long-term plans]; Phy(12)jul [CMS discovery of the Ξb*0]; news hp(14)jul [a future without accelerators?]; pw(16)jan [Fabiola Gianotti becomes the 15th CERN director-general]; wired(16)mar [a bump in the data? (no)]; thewire(16)oct [there can be hidden physics in old data]; sa(17)apr [the latest LHC data anomaly]; > s.a. standard model [phenomenology].
@ Accelerator physics: Wilson 01 [r PT(02)aug]; Lee 04; Wiedemann 04; Sessler & Wilson 07 [history]; Conte & MacKay 08 [r CP(11)]; Carter CP(11) [intro]; Barletta AJP(12)feb [future, RL]; news ps(12)oct [future]; Shiltsev ch-a1307 [the first colliders]; news sci(16)mar [SuperKEKB stores electrons].
@ Heavy-ion physics: Ludlam & McLerran PT(03)oct, Riordan & Zajc SA(06)may [RHIC]; Bartke 08.
@ Muon collider: Sessler PT(98)mar [gamma and muon colliders]; news nat(09)nov; Shiltsev MPLA(10) [status of R&D, timeline].
@ New technology: CERN courier(96)jan/feb, news pn(96)mar, Scandale MPLA(12) [beam deflection by crystal]; Breuer & Hommelhoff PRL(13) [laser-based acceleration]; news pw(13)oct [glass etched with tiny gratings]; news sd(14)may [laser-plasma accelerators].
@ Catastrophes? Kent hp/00, RA(04)hp/00 ["killer strangelet"].
@ LHC: Smith SA(00)jul; Maiani IJMPA(04), Rodgers pw(04)sep, news pw(06)jun, news pw(06)oct, Chalmers pw(06)oct, Parker pw(06)oct, news pw(07)jun, pw(07)jun, PT(07)sep [status]; Litim & Plehn PRL(08) [gravitational fixed points]; Collins SA(08)feb; Castelvecchi SA(09)apr [new approach to data analysis]; Evans ed-09; Lincoln 09 [I]; news BBC(09)nov [first collisions]; news NYT(09)dec [1.2 TeV achieved]; Mangano CP(10) [upgrade plans]; Ellis IJMPA(10) [prospects for new physics]; synopsis Phy(10) [background events]; news pw(10)nov [first ZZ event seen]; news popsci(10)nov, sn(11)apr [prospects]; Herten MPLA(11)-a1104 [first-year overview]; Giudice PiP(12)-a1106 [and Big Science]; news AT(12)feb [energy and luminosity increases]; Morrissey et al PRP(12) [new physics]; news ro(13)jul [new superconducting quadrupole magnet to increase LHC luminosity]; Myers IJMPA(13) [rev]; news sci(15)feb, bbc(15)mar [the current upgrade]; Florio et al a1507 [cost-benefit analysis to 2025]; news npr(16)apr [weasel-caused shutdown].
> What would happen if you stuck your hand inside a particle accelerator? Sixty Symbols video.

Non-Accelerator Physics > s.a. cosmic rays; dark matter; neutrinos.
* Areas: Study proton decay, solar neutrinos, cosmic rays, dark matter, search for fractional charges.
@ Neutrinos: Halzen hx/96-proc [AMANDA detector]; Detwiler et al PRL(02)hx [from nuclear vessels].
@ Fractional charges: Perl & Lee AJP(97)aug; Loomba et al RSI(00); Sbarra et al ap/03-conf; Perl et al MPLA(04) [rev].
@ Related topics: Bethlem et al PRL(99) + pn(99)aug [neutral particle decelerators]; in NPPS(07)166 [in space]; Battista CP(14) [single-particle sources].

Related Topics and Specific Concepts > s.a. history of physics.
@ Detectors: Kleinknecht 99; Grupen & Shwartz 11; > s.a. radiation [interaction with matter].
@ And cosmology: Schramm SA(88)jun; Feng CQG(08)-a0801-conf [LHC].
@ Technological consequences: news NS(90)feb10, p43; > s.a. areas of physics [applications].
@ Sociological aspects: Pickering & Trower Nat(85)nov; Traweek 88; Staley 04 [evidence for top quark].
> Specific experiments: see CPT; particle types.
> Specific topics: see anomalous acceleration; Luminosity; monopoles.


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